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All about Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram–Negative with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms
|Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram–Negative with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms|
Diseases cause by Gram-negative bacilli :
- These cause extra-intestinal infections commonly. These bacteria are Escherichia, Klebsiella, Proteus,
- Enterobacter, Serratia, Citrobacter, Morganella.
- Escherichia coli causes intestinal disease gastroenteritis.
- Gram negative enteric bacteria can cause serious infections in nearly every organ and site e.g. lungs, deep tissues, mediastinum, UTI, blood stream, peritoneum, soft tissue etc.
|Meningococcal Infectiondiagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms|
- Meningococcal meningitis and fulminant meningococcemia are caused by Neisseria meningitidis, also called meningococci. -+ Penicillin + clavulanic
- Meningococci also cause pneumonia, septic arthritis, losporins, Quinolones. pericarditis, urethritis, conjunctivitis .
- Meningococci are Gram-ve diplococci.
- :rhe disease spreads by respiratory secretions.
- Cefotaxime – 2 gm IV every 4 hours or Ceftriaxone 2 gm IV 12 hourly.
- Penicillin G 18 – 24 million units IV / day.
- Meropenem – 1 gm IV 8 hrly.
- Fluoroquinolones like gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin.
- Single injection of quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine above age of 3 years.
- The duration of immunity is about 3 – 5 years only.
- Close contact of cases must receive ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin, or azithromycin.
|HEMOPHILUS INFECTIONS diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms|
- Hemophilus influenzae is gram-negative organism of variable shape, therefore called coccobacillus. It
- causes respiratory diseases, community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, especially in COPD and AIDS.
- The most serious disease it can cause is meningitis (H. influenzae type B – HiB).
- Ceftriaxone – 2 g 12 hrly.
- Cefotaxime – 2 g 6 hrly.
- For me’ningitis, glucocorticoids are added to reduce neurologic sequelae.
- Vaccination and chemoprophylaxis are also recommended.
|MORAXELLA CATARRHALIS diagnosis Tre atment Signs and symptoms|
- This is a gram-negative coccus causing otitis media, si nusitis, bronchopu Imonary infections.
- It is also called Neisseria.