Post Contents List
- 1 Ascites Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Management —
- 3 Defination of ascites –
- 4 Abdomen looks swollen if there is any cause —
- 5 Symptoms of ascites —
- 6 Physical Examination
- 7 Palpation
- 8 percussion —-
- 9 Auscultation
- 10 Rectal examination, pelvic examination—
- 11 X-ray:
- 12 CAUSES OF ASCITES –
- 14 Biopsy –
- 15 Other investigations –
Ascites Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Management —
Ascites is presence of free fluid in the abdomen (peritoneal cavity). SymptomsBacterial Infections Caused by HACEK GROUP Gram-Negative with diagnosis Treatment. Read more ... » of ascites are
Bloating, fullness in abdomen, Increased pressureChronic Long-term Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus. Read more ... », Indigestion, Stretching, pulling, Localized pain, Low back pain, HeartAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) Causes PATHOPHYSIOLOGY and Etiology. Read more ... » burn, Dyspnea, orthopnea, tachypnea, Hernias, etc.
Defination of ascites –
- In medicalFatigue diagnosis medicine and treatment. Read more ... » words Ascites is the accumulation of fluid (most commonly serous fluid, which is a light yellow and clear fluid in appearance) in the abdominal peritoneal cavity.
- Abdominal cavity is Placed below the chest cavity, diaphragm separated it from it from chest cavity. Ascitic fluid may have different causesBacterial Infections Caused by HACEK GROUP Gram-Negative with diagnosis Treatment. Read more ... » such as liver diseaseBacterial Infections Caused by HACEK GROUP Gram-Negative with diagnosis Treatment. Read more ... », cancers, congestive heart failureHeart Failure Treatment Heart Failure GENERAL PRINCIPLES. Read more ... », kidneyDiabetic Nephropathy and Renal complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus). Read more ... » failure, etc.
- Ascites is presence of free fluid in the abdomen (peritoneal cavity).
Abdomen looks swollen if there is any cause —
- · Sensation of fullness in abdomen
- · Local type swelling on abdomen
- · ObesityHyperthyroidism or THYROTOXICOSIS Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis. Read more ... » common
- · Lumbar lordosis [ abnormal forward curvature of the spine ]
- · Ascites.
Symptoms of ascites —
- Bloating, fullness in abdomen
- Stretching, pulling
- Low back pain
- Localized pain
- Increased pressure
- Heart burn
- Dyspnea, orthopnea, tachypnea
- Hernias, etc.
- In Ascites-tense abdomen, bulging flanks, stretched skin, everted umbilicus.
- Palmar erythema (red palm) and spider nevi in cirrhosis.
- Supraclavicular lymph nodes-Virchow’s node in gastrointestinal malignancy.
- Prominent abdominal veins with flow away from umbilicus in portal hypertension, flow from lower part of abdomen to umbilicus in inferior vena cava obstruction, flow down to umbilicus in superior vena cava obstruction.
- Bowel loops with doming of abdomen seen in intestinal obstruction.
- Epigastric mass with peristalsis left to right seen in pyloric obstruction.
- · Ballottement test for fluid – sudden, deep movement with hands.
- · Splenomegaly may present
- · Liver – Soft in extrahepatic portal hypertensionPortal Hypertension Clinical Features Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment. Read more ... » – Firm in Cirrhosis
- - Hard in malignancy
- · Hard periumbilical nodule – Sister Mary Joseph’s nodule) in metastatic disease from pelvic or gastrointestinal tumorUses of Ayurveda for Improvement in Cancer Patients Treatment. Read more ... ».
- .Pulsate liver and ascites in TR (Tricuspid Regurgitation).
- Mass: Solid, cystic, moves with respiration or not.
- Liver, spleen, gal! bladder move with respiration. Retroperitoneal mass does not.
- Tenderness means abscess.
- · Fluid in the abdomen is dull on percussionPalpation of Precordium and Percussion of the Heart. Read more ... ».
- · For small amount fluid, patient is put on hands and knees.
- .Liver dullness is absent in cirrhosis, perforation of gut.
- · Shifting dullness: area of dullness shifts with change in posture of patient.
- Fluid thrill is present.
- by Ultrasound can detect as little as 100 ml of fluid.
- High-pitched rushing sounds in early obstruction. Bruit sound over liver in vascular tumor, hepatocellular carcinoma may present.
- Leathery friction rub of surface nodule.
- Venous hum at umbilicus in portal hypertensionThyrotoxic crisis or Thyroid storm. Read more ... ».
Rectal examination, pelvic examination—
- Upright films – Fluid levels and dilated intestinal loops are seen.
- Recumbent films – Diffuse haziness, loss of psoas margins. Liver abscess, liver carcinoma may be diagnosed.
- any abnormal mass, organs seen.
CT Scan To see:
- - Retroperitoneu m
- - Pancreas
- - Lymph node.
- Barium study of cancers/ tumours.
CAUSES OF ASCITES –
- · Cirrhosis of liver
- · CHF (Congestive Heart Failure)
- · Anemia with hypoproteinemia
- · Nephrotic syndromeMetabolic,Insulin Resistance Syndrome X Causes Symptoms. Read more ... »
- · Carcinomatosis
- · Hepatocellular carcinoma
- · Portal vein thrombosis
- · Bacterial peritonitis.
- · Remove 50 – 100 ml fluid
- : - Gross appearance – Protein content
- - Cell count
- - Differential cell count
- - Gram’s stain
- - AFB stain.
SAG – Serum Albumin Gradient —
- Serum: ascites albumin gradient if more the 1.1 gjdl (high gradient) suggests uncomplicated cirrhosis (ascites due to portal hypertension).
- If SAG < 1.1 g/dl (low gradient) suggests that ascites is not due to portal hypertension.
- In other words, if ascitic fluid albumin is more than serum albumin then ascites is not due to portal hypertension but some other etiology. If serum albumin is more than ascitic fluid albumin then the cause is portal hypertension as in cirrhosis of liver.
- Blood stained fluid may be seen in neoplasm or tubercular peritonitis.
- Cloudy fluid with increased polymorphs (with +ve Gram’s stain) in bacterial peritonitis.
- Most cells are lymphocytes in tubercular peritonitis. Culture of peritoneal fluid - for microorganisms
- Laparoscopy of peritoneum – visualization and biopsy.
- · Turbid or milky peritoneal fluid.
- · Sudan-staining fat globules and increased trigIycerides (> 1000 mgjdl).
- · If turbidity clears with alkali, it is due to cellular protein.
- ·If turbidity clears with ether, it is due to lipids.
Causes of Chylous fluids –
- · Filariasis
- · Tuberculosis
- · Trauma
- · Tumors
- · Nephrotic syndrome.
- Pseudomyxoma peritoneii.
- Colloid carcinoma of stomach or colon.
Ascitic fluid- may be –
- Venous hypertension Hypoalbuminemia Nephrosis
- Tricuspid regurgitationTricuspid Stenosis and Tricuspid Regurgitation Symptoms Investigations and Treatment. Read more ... », RVF Constrictive pericarditisCHRONIC CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS Physical findings and Treatment. Read more ... » Meig’s syndrome (ascites, hydrothorax, ovarian tumors)
- Bacterial peritonitis Tubercular peritonitis
Other investigations –
- · Doppler ultrasound
- · Angiography
- · CT
- · MRI
- · Endoscopic retrograde graphy (ERCP).
This is short description about ascites if you have any question about it feel free to make a comment i will reply it as soon as possible.