All about Bacterial Infections Caused by SALMONELLA —
- TYPHOID FEVER with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms
Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi cause enteric (typhoid) fever. Typhoid fever is a systemic disease characterized by fever and abdominal pain.
|Bacterial Infections Caused bySALMONELLA — TYPHOID FEVER|
SALMONELLA INFECTIONS TYPHOID FEVER
- Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi cause enteric (typhoid) fever.
- Typhoid fever is a systemic disease characterized by fever and abdominal pain.
- The mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches are enlarged.
- Incubation period is 3 – 21 days.
Signs and symptoms TYPHOID FEVER
|TYPHOID FEVER with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms|
- There is a prodrome of headache, anorexia, cough, weakness, hr a , muscle pains.
- There is prolonged fever in range of 101 – 104°F. There are gastrointestinal symptoms – pain, diarrhoea, and constipation.
- There are rose spots / rashes, hepatosplenomegaly, epistaxis, and relative bradycardia.
- The rash appears at the end of first week and disappears in a few days.
- ‘The patient may go into delirium.
- Late complications occur in third or fourth week, like intestinal perforation and gastrointestinal haemorrhage.
- Rare complications are pancreatitis, hepatic abscess, endocarditis, pericarditis, orchitis, hepatitis, meningitis, nephritis, pneumonia, arthritis and parotitis.
- Relapse rate is high.
- Incidence of carriers is also high.
Diagnosis of TYPHOID FEVER
- is by culture, during the first week of infection.
- The disease is marked initially by a fever up to 104° F for about 7 days, followed by a flat, rose-colored, fleeting rash, generalized lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, anorexia, and extreme exhaustion as the bacteria spread through the bloodstream.
- Paratyphoid, pneumonia, dysentery, meningitis, smallpox, and appendicitis are among the differential diagnoses.
- The best means of providing bacterial confirmation is through bone marrow culture.
- Diagnostic points of value are the presence of rose spots, splenomegaly, leukopenia, the Widal serological test result, blood culture, and examination of feces for the presence of the causative organism.
- Damage to the liver and spleen is commonly seen.
- About 14 days after the infection begins, internal bleeding usually develops as the result of gastrointestinal ulcers, and this may lead to hypovolemic shock.
- The Widal test is a serological test for febrile agglutinins.
Treatment of TYPHOID FEVER :
- Chloramphenicol – 2-3 g / day
- Ampicillin – 1 g 6 hrly
- Ciprofloxacin 500 mg BD for 10 days
- Ofloxacin 800 mg in divided doses BD for 3 days
- Ceftriaxone 1 to 2 gm IV for 2 weeks.
- Shigellae are Gram-negative bacilli of enterobacteriaceae. It causes acute infectious inflammatory colitis or bacillary dysentery.
- it can be spread also by vomitus and oral secretions during the acute stage.
- The disease is most commonly transmitted through water or food contaminated by human feces, but
- Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi, gram-negative bacteria that invade the walls of the ileum and colon and then gain access to the bloodstream.
- Shigellosis presents with fever, bloody or watery diarrhoea with recovery in a few days or weeks.
|Shigellae are Gram-negative bacilli|
Treatment of TYPHOID FEVER
- Dexamethasone is administered a few minutes before antibiotics are given in patients with shock or decreased levels of consciousness
- The disease is treated with ciprofloxacin for 10 days.
- Oral rehydration therapy
- Fluroquinolones like Ciprofloxacin,
- and Ofloxacin for 1 to 3 days.
- Trimethoprim – Sulphamethoxozole.