Mediastinal Diseases(Mediastinal masses) SYMPTOMS Causes with Treatment

Mediastinal Diseases

  • The mediastinum is the region between the two pleu­ral sacs i.e. the central portion of thorax.
  • It is separated into 3 compartments.
  •  Anterior mediastinum


    • contains the thymus, lymph nodes, internal mammary arteries and veins.
    • The anterior compartment (also referred to as the anterosuperior compartment or retrosternal space) is anterior to the pericardium and includes the thymus, the extrapericardial aorta and its branches, the great veins, and lymphatic tissue.
  • Middle mediastinum

  •  Posterior mediastinum


    • contains descending v thoracic aorta, oesophagus, thoracic duct, azy­gos and hemiazygos veins, lymph nodes.
    • The posterior compartment extends from the posterior pericardial reflection to the posterior border of the vertebral bodies and from the first rib to the diaphragm

Mediastinal masses


  • Most mediastinal tumors in adults are either asymptomatic (found on plain chest radiographs or computed tomographic (CT) scans
  • Phrenic nerve damage can present with an elevated hemidiaphragm.
  • Airway compression can lead to recurrent pulmonary infection and/or hemoptysis.
  • Hoarseness can occur due to recurrent laryngeal nerve involvement.
  • Esophageal compression can cause dysphagia. Involvement of the spinal column can result in paralysis.
  • Horner’s and superior vena cava syndromes arise due to sympathetic ganglion and superior vena caval involvement, respectively


Causes of Mediastinal Diseases are:

  • 1. Alveolar rupture.
  • 2. Rupture of oesophagus, trachea, bronchi.
  • 3. Dissection of air from neck or abdomen.

ClinicalCYANOTIC CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE (Tetralogy of Fallot, Truncus arteriosus ). Read more ... » features of Mediastinal Diseases :

Treatment of Mediastinal Diseases :

  • Oxygen inhalation and needle aspiration, if re­quired.
  • Usually no treatment is required.
  • But directed by the specific or likely diagnosis obtained through the history, physical examination, radiologic studies, and other diagnostic tests.
  • Exploration and resection through a limited or full median sternotomy or thoracotomy (eg, resection of teratoma and thymic masses).
  • Resection via minimally invasive video-assisted (VATS) procedures (may be appropriate for bronchogenic, esophageal duplication cysts or localized neurogenic tumors)

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