Polycythemia Vera My­elofibrosis Thrombocytosis Cause Diagnosis Treatment

Polycythemia Vera Diagnosis Type And Treatment

Polycythemia Vera diagnosis
Polycythemia Vera Diagnosis

 

  • Chronic myeloproliferative disorders are due to over­production of one or more of the formed elements of blood.
  • These are polycythemia vera, chronic idiopathic my­elofibrosis, essential thrombocytosis, chronic myeloid leukemia.

Definition Polycythemia Vera My­elofibrosis

Polycythemia vera is a clonal disorder with ac­cumulation of phenotypically normal red cells, granulocytes and platelets without any known physiologic stimulus.  

  • There is a genetic basis for the disorder. There is massive splenomegaly.
  • There is high hemoglobin or hematocrit. There is uncontrolled erythrocytosis.
  • There is vertigo, tinnitus, headache and visual dis­turbances.
  • There is systolic hypertension.
  • There is venous or arterial thrombosis, particularly intraabdominal venous thrombosis.
  • Patients of polycythemia vera develop Budd Chiari syndrome.
  • There is ischemia of digits.
  • There is easy bruising, epistaxis, GI (gastrointesti­nal) haemorrhage.
  • There is hyperuricaemia, with secondary gout, and uric acid stones.
  • Acid peptic disease is very common.

Causes of polycythemia

 

Polycythemia Vera 1
Causes of polycythemia

 

  • Polycythemia vera
  • Carbon mono-oxide poisoning High altitude
  • Pulmonary diseases
  • Sleep apnea syndrome
  • Right to left cardiac shunts
  • Renal diseases like renal artery stenosis, cysts, transplantation
  • Hypernephroma, hepatoma Pheochromocytoma.

Diagnosis Polycythemia Vera My­elofibrosis

 

Polycythemia Vera 2
Diagnosis

 

  • Polycythemia is diagnosed by presence of elevated red cell mass, normal arterial oxygen saturation, sple­nomegaly, and in absence of splenomegaly there is leukocytosis.

Treatment Polycythemia Vera My­elofibrosis

  • Hemoglobin level should be less than 14 g/dl in men and less than 12 g/dl in women to avoid thrombotic complications.
  • Periodic phlebotomy (section of vein to drain blood to reduce red cell mass and hyperviscos­ity) is done at 3-month intervals till iron defi­ciency occurs.
  • Chemotherapy is not indicated.