RUBELLA and CHICKENPOX SMALLPOX Diagnosis Clinical Signs and Symptoms With Treatment | MedicScientist :: Total Health Portal

RUBELLA OR GERMAN MEASLES and CHICKENPOX and SMALLPOX Causative agents Diagnosis Clinical Signs and Symptoms With Treatment

RUBELLAIU
RUBELLA OR GERMAN MEASLES

 

RUBELLA OR GERMAN MEASLES
  • Acute mild infection of children.
  • There is low grade fever, lymphadenopathy, maculo­papular rash, and arthritis in adults.
  • In early pregnancy, rubella infection results in con­genital defects and even death of the fetus.

RUBELLA Causative agent

  • RNA toga virus.
RUBELLAUYJ
RUBELLA VIRUS OR GERMAN MEASLES virus

RUBELLA Source of infection

  • · Clinical and subclinical cases of rubella.
  • · Virus is transmitted from nose, throat secretion one week before rash to one week after rash.
  • · The virus can cross the placenta leading to congenital rubella in the baby.

RUBELLA Period of infectivity

  • A week before symptoms to a week after rash.
  • One attack gives life-long immunity. Second attacks are rare.

RUBELLA Incubation period

  • 10-20 days. Age: 3 to 15 years.

RUBELLA Rash

  • · It is seen on the face within 24 hours.
  • · Rashes are small, discrete, macular, spread to
  • the trunk, arms and legs.
  • · Disappears on third day.

RUBELLA Complications

  • Arthralgia,
  • encephalitis,
  • thrombocy­topenic purpura.

CONGENITAL RUBELLA

  • Infants born to mothers with rubella in pregnancy suffer from congenital rubella syndrome.
  • Congenital defects are deafness, low birth weight, cardiac defects, cataracts, glaucoma, retinopathy, mi­crocephaly, mental retardation.
  • In first trimester of pregnancy abortion can occur.

RUBELLA Vaccination

  • · Active immunization with live attenuated vac­cine.
  • · MMR vaccine consists of measles, mumps, ru­bella vaccine.
  • · All children aged 1 to 14 years or preferably all i-year old children should be vaccinated.
  • · All women of child bearing age (15 to 39 years) should be vaccinated if not already vaccinated.

 

CHICKENPOX

 

CHICKENPOX HJ
CHICKENPOX  Diagnosis Clinical Signs and Symptoms

CHICKENPOX Caused by

  • Varicella zoster virus.
  • Characterized by vesicular rash, fever, malaise Chickenpox and Herpes zoster have same etiology.
CHICKENPOX IU
CHICKENPOX VIRUS Clinical Signs and Symptoms

CHICKENPOX Source of infection –

  • A case of chickenpox.

CHICKENPOX Infection occurs from

  • skin lesions
  • oropharyngeal secretions.
  • Vesicular fluid spreads the virus during the first 3 days.
  • Scabs are not infective

CHICKENPOX Period of infectivity –

  • 2 days before rash to 4 days after rash.

CHICKENPOX Age

  • Children under 10 years. Second attack is rare.
CHICKENPOX Congenital varicella ty
CHICKENPOXCongenital varicella

CHICKENPOX Congenital varicella

  • Virus crosses placental bar­rier,
  • infects the fetus called congenital varicella.

CHICKENPOX Incubation period –

  • 14 days.

CHICKENPOX Clinical features –

  • sudden onset fever,
  • pain in the back,
  • shivering,
  • malaise.

CHICKENPOX Rash

  • after 1 to 2 days.
  • Rash is symmetrical, on trunk, face, arms, legs, mouth Palms and soles not affected.
  • Vesicles have clear fluid and look like dew drops. Scabbing after 4 days.
  • There is pleomorphism – all stages of rash seen to­gether.
  • There are several crops of rash each time with fever.

CHICKENPOX Complications

  • Haemorrhages,
  • Pneumonia,
  • Encephalitis.

CHICKENPOX Vaccine

  • There is no need of vaccine as the disease does not occur after first attack and it is a mild illness.

SMALLPOX

 

SMALLPOX UYH
SMALLPOX

SMALLPOX  Caused by

  • Variola virus
SMALLPOX IU
Variola virus  SMALLPOX

SMALLPOX  Characterized by :

  • · Fever of sudden onset
  • · Headache, Backache
  • · Vomiting
  • · Convulsions
  • On 3rd day of fever – typical centrifugal rash, i.e. more peripherally, appears.

Stages of SMALLPOX  –

  • macules,
  • papules,
  • vesicle,
  • pustule,
  • scab,
  • scarring.
  • Smallpox has been eradicated globally.