RUBELLA and CHICKENPOX SMALLPOX Diagnosis Clinical Signs and Symptoms With Treatment

RUBELLA OR GERMAN MEASLES and CHICKENPOX and SMALLPOX Causative agents Diagnosis Clinical Signs and Symptoms With Treatment

RUBELLAIU
RUBELLA OR GERMAN MEASLES

 

RUBELLA OR GERMAN MEASLES
  • Acute mild infection of children.
  • There is low grade fever, lymphadenopathy, maculo­papular rash, and arthritis in adults.
  • In early pregnancy, rubella infection results in con­genital defects and even death of the fetus.

RUBELLA Causative agent

  • RNA toga virus.
RUBELLAUYJ
RUBELLA VIRUS OR GERMAN MEASLES virus

RUBELLA Source of infection

  • · Clinical and subclinical cases of rubella.
  • · Virus is transmitted from nose, throat secretion one week before rash to one week after rash.
  • · The virus can cross the placenta leading to congenital rubella in the baby.

RUBELLA Period of infectivity

  • A week before symptoms to a week after rash.
  • One attack gives life-long immunity. Second attacks are rare.

RUBELLA Incubation period

  • 10-20 days. Age: 3 to 15 years.

RUBELLA Rash

  • · It is seen on the face within 24 hours.
  • · Rashes are small, discrete, macular, spread to
  • the trunk, arms and legs.
  • · Disappears on third day.

RUBELLA Complications

  • Arthralgia,
  • encephalitis,
  • thrombocy­topenic purpura.

CONGENITAL RUBELLA

  • Infants born to mothers with rubella in pregnancy suffer from congenital rubella syndrome.
  • Congenital defects are deafness, low birth weight, cardiac defects, cataracts, glaucoma, retinopathy, mi­crocephaly, mental retardation.
  • In first trimester of pregnancy abortion can occur.

RUBELLA Vaccination

  • · Active immunization with live attenuated vac­cine.
  • · MMR vaccine consists of measles, mumps, ru­bella vaccine.
  • · All children aged 1 to 14 years or preferably all i-year old children should be vaccinated.
  • · All women of child bearing age (15 to 39 years) should be vaccinated if not already vaccinated.

 

CHICKENPOX

 

CHICKENPOX HJ
CHICKENPOX  Diagnosis Clinical Signs and Symptoms

CHICKENPOX Caused by

  • Varicella zoster virus.
  • Characterized by vesicular rash, fever, malaise Chickenpox and Herpes zoster have same etiology.
CHICKENPOX IU
CHICKENPOX VIRUS Clinical Signs and Symptoms

CHICKENPOX Source of infection –

  • A case of chickenpox.

CHICKENPOX Infection occurs from

  • skin lesions
  • oropharyngeal secretions.
  • Vesicular fluid spreads the virus during the first 3 days.
  • Scabs are not infective

CHICKENPOX Period of infectivity –

  • 2 days before rash to 4 days after rash.

CHICKENPOX Age

  • Children under 10 years. Second attack is rare.
CHICKENPOX Congenital varicella ty
CHICKENPOXCongenital varicella

CHICKENPOX Congenital varicella

  • Virus crosses placental bar­rier,
  • infects the fetus called congenital varicella.

CHICKENPOX Incubation period –

  • 14 days.

CHICKENPOX Clinical features –

  • sudden onset fever,
  • pain in the back,
  • shivering,
  • malaise.

CHICKENPOX Rash

  • after 1 to 2 days.
  • Rash is symmetrical, on trunk, face, arms, legs, mouth Palms and soles not affected.
  • Vesicles have clear fluid and look like dew drops. Scabbing after 4 days.
  • There is pleomorphism – all stages of rash seen to­gether.
  • There are several crops of rash each time with fever.

CHICKENPOX Complications

  • Haemorrhages,
  • Pneumonia,
  • Encephalitis.

CHICKENPOX Vaccine

  • There is no need of vaccine as the disease does not occur after first attack and it is a mild illness.

SMALLPOX

 

SMALLPOX UYH
SMALLPOX

SMALLPOX  Caused by

  • Variola virus
SMALLPOX IU
Variola virus  SMALLPOX

SMALLPOX  Characterized by :

  • · Fever of sudden onset
  • · Headache, Backache
  • · Vomiting
  • · Convulsions
  • On 3rd day of fever – typical centrifugal rash, i.e. more peripherally, appears.

Stages of SMALLPOX  –

  • macules,
  • papules,
  • vesicle,
  • pustule,
  • scab,
  • scarring.
  • Smallpox has been eradicated globally.