All about Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram-Positive Clostridium tetani with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms
TETANUS CausesEisenmenger syndrome (ASD, VSD, PDA With PAH with reversal of shunt - Right-to-Ieft shunt) with Treatment. Read more ... » DiagnosisEisenmenger syndrome (ASD, VSD, PDA With PAH with reversal of shunt - Right-to-Ieft shunt) with Treatment. Read more ... » TreatmentEisenmenger syndrome (ASD, VSD, PDA With PAH with reversal of shunt - Right-to-Ieft shunt) with Treatment. Read more ... »
with SignsEisenmenger syndrome (ASD, VSD, PDA With PAH with reversal of shunt - Right-to-Ieft shunt) with Treatment. Read more ... »
and SymptomsEisenmenger syndrome (ASD, VSD, PDA With PAH with reversal of shunt - Right-to-Ieft shunt) with Treatment. Read more ... »
Clinical manifestations TETANUS:
- There is increased muscle tone and generalized spasms.
- It occurs 3 – 13days after an injury such as a puncture wound, laceration or abrasion. It is also associated with burns, surgery, abortion, child birth, gangrene.
- There is increased tone in the masseter muscles (jaw muscles) resulting in tri.smus or lock-jaw.
- Lock-jaw is the first feature of tetanus.
- ~There is dysphagia, stiffness of neck, shoulder and back muscles.
- The abdomen is rigid.
- Hands and feet are spared but proximal limb muscles are involved.
- There is risus sardonicus (sarcastic smile) due to sustained contraction of facial muscles.
- There is opisthotonus (arched back). There may be cyanosis and respiratory distress.
- Convulsions are provoked by any stimulation like noise, light etc.
- Patient may have feverHow to Manage Hay Fever at Home. Read more ... ».
- Deep tendon reflexes are exaggerated.
- There may be tachycardia, hypertensionDiabetic Nephropathy and Renal complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus). Read more ... », arrhythmiasCOMPLICATIONS OF Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) AND TREATMENT -2. Read more ... », laryngeal spasm, respiratory arrest and cardiacMitral Regurgitation (MR)Causes Symptoms Mitral Regurgitation Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation ACC/AHA guideline. Read more ... » arrest.
- Diagnosis is usually clinicalEisenmenger syndrome (ASD, VSD, PDA With PAH with reversal of shunt - Right-to-Ieft shunt) with Treatment. Read more ... ».
Treatment OF TETANUS
- General supportive measures. Respiratory support.
- Airway is protected.
- Wound is cleaned and debrided.
- Penicillin 10 – 12 million units daily IV for 10 days.
- Metronidazole 500 mg §…b.r:l¥.
- Clindamycin, Erythromycin.
- V Antitoxin-human tetanus immune globulin is given to neutralize circulating toxin in the wound. Dose is 3000 – 6000 units intra muscular in divided doses.
- Equine tetanus antitoxin may be used instead of. human antitoxin.
- Muscle spasms are controlled by Diazepam, Lorazepam, Propofol, Magnesium sulphate.
- Respiratory care – Tracheostomy and Mechanical ventilation.
Prevention OF TETANUS :
|neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum
- Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum.
- There is cranial nerve involvement and the disease progresses downwards to the extremities.
- Botulism may be food-borne, or wound botulism, or intestinal botulism.
- Botulism occurs worldwide.
- Botulinum toxin can be dispersed in an aerosol or mixed with food. Therefore, it is used in biological warfare and terrorism.
Clinical features BOTULISM:
- There may be a mild ill ess or a severe disease resulting in death ithin 24 ho!J.[s.
- Incubation period is 1 – 2 days.
- -There is symmetrical descending paralysis with respiratory failure and death.
- -There is cranial nerve involvement, diplopia, dysarthria, dysphagia.
- There is nausia vomitingNausea and Vomiting. Read more ... » ,abdominal pain, dizziness, depressed pupillar reflexes, and decreased, deepaondon reflexes.
- Diagnosis is by demonstration of the organism or its toxin in vomitus, gastric fluid or stool.
Treatment BOTULISM :
|GAS-GANGRENE disease is caused by Clostridium perfringens