Theophylline

Details About Generic Salt ::  Theophylline 

Main Medicine Class:: Respiratory System   Sub Medicine Class ::  Drugs For Asthma,COPD,ARDS

6A. DRUGS FOR ASTHMA/COPD/ARDS in 6. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
THEOPHYLLINE
PDE INHIBITOR | BRONCHODILATOR, SPASMOLYTIC
PK: A: Rapid (PO) D: 0.45 L/kg (Vd) M: Hepatic E: Urine

Indications & Dose: ACUTE BRONCHOSPASM PO Adult Loading dose 5 mg/kg Child >1 yr: Same as adult dose | ACUTE SEVERE BRONCHOSPASM IV Adult Inf: Loading dose 4-5mg/kg over 20-30 min, MD 400-600µg/kg/h Child Initially loading dose 4-5mg/kg followed by MD, Neonates: <24days: 1mg/kg q12h, >24 days: 1.5mg/kg q12h, 1-9yr: 0.8-1mg/kg/h, 9-12yr: 0.7-0.77mg/kg/hIn patients who have not received theophylline, aminophylline, or other xanthine-containing medications in previous 24h | CHRONIC BRONCHOSPASM PO Adult Initially 300mg/day in divided doses may increase dose to 400mg/day in divided doses Child 6-15 yr (<45kg): Initially 12-14mg/kg/day in divided dose max 300mg may increase to 16mg/kg/day after 3 days if tolerated. May further increase to 20mg/kg/day after next 3 days max 600mg in divided dose, 6-15yr (>45kg): Initially 300mg/day in divided doses may increase dose to 400mg/day in divided doses. May further increase to 600mg/day after next 3 days max 600mg in divided dose, > 16 yr: Same as adult dose Elderly >60 yr: 400mg/day

Contra: Hypersensitivity, active peptic ulcer, seizures

Precautions: alcoholism, HF, HTN, renal/hepatic disease, COPD, hypoxemia, hyperthyroidism, DM, glaucoma, corticosteroids, elderly

ADR: Serious: SIADH, hypersensitivity, circulatory failure, ventricular arrhythmias, respiratory arrest, tachycardia, seizures, Others: fever, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, hyperglycemia

DDI: Serious β-blockers/Corticosteroids causes hypokalemia, Macrolides increases drug toxicity, Ceftibuten/cefalexin/Mexiletine leads to drug toxicity, Imipenem leads to seizures, Interferon α/Disulfiram/Phenylpropanolamine/Ticlopidine reduces drug clearance, Dobutamine results in marked tachycardia Others Tobacco/Cannabis increases drug clearance, Influenza vaccines/Allopurinol/Tetracyclines increases drug levels, Rifampicin/Phenytoin/Ritonavir lowers drug levels, Carbamazepine reduces drug effects

Diet: With/Without food

Monitor: ECG, CNS effects, respiratory rate, arterial/capillary blood gases,theophylline concentration

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