Post Contents List
- 1 Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) and Pyelonephritis
- 2 Acute urethral syndrome
- 3 Urinary Tract Infection Etiology
- 4 Urinary Tract Infection Risk Factors
- 5 Route of Infection
- 6 Clinical Presentations Cystitis:
- 7 Acute pyelonephritis :
- 8 Urethritis :
- 9 Catheter-associated UTI
- 10 TREATMENT of Urinary Tract Infection
- 11 Rx for 7-14d for Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) and Pyelonephritis
- Urinary Tract infections may be :
- 1. Lower tract infection - Urethritis and cystitis
- 2. Upper tract infection - AcuteMechanical Ventilation Support in Critical Care. Read more ... » pyelonephritis, prostatitis, intrarenal and perinephric abscesses.
- Acute pyelonephritis is a syndromeMetabolic,Insulin Resistance Syndrome X Causes Symptoms. Read more ... » caused by an infection of the renalDiabetic Nephropathy and Renal complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus). Read more ... » parenchyma and renal pelvis, often producing localized flank or back pain combined with systemic symptomsMechanical Ventilation Support in Critical Care. Read more ... » such as feverHow to Manage Hay Fever at Home. Read more ... », chills, and nauseaNausea and Vomiting. Read more ... ». It has a wide spectrum of presentation from mild illness to septic shockShock Presentation Risk Factors Pathogenesis Management Treatment. Read more ... ».
- Infection of the kidneys, ureters, or bladder by microorganisms that either ascend from the urethra (95% of cases) or that spread to the kidneyDiabetic Nephropathy and Renal complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus). Read more ... » from the bloodstream (5%).
UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) exists when microorganisms are detected in urine, urethra, bladder, kidney and prostate.
- Growth of >105 organisms/ml from mid-stream clean catch urine samples is diagnostic of infection of urinary tract (UT).
- In symptomatic patients, small number of bacteria may also be diagnosed as UTI.
- Acute symptomatic infections are common in young girls and womer.].
- Urine specimens’may also be collected by suprapubic aspirations and from indwelling cathetersInstruments and Procedures- Catheters. Read more ... » in patients.
Acute urethral syndrome
- is dysuria, urgency and frequency without significant bacteriuria.
- UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) may be :
- 1. Catheter-associated or nosocomial.
- 2. Non-catheter-associated or community-acquireLt
Urinary Tract Infection Etiology
- Gram-negativeBacterial Infections by Gram-Negative with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms. Read more ... » bacteria – Escherichia coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, PseudomonasInfections Caused by Gram-Negative PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptom. Read more ... »
- Gram-positive bacteria – Staphylococcus aureus Others–Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and herpes simplexViruses General Introduction To VIRAL DISEASES Diagnosis Treatment with Causative Agents. Read more ... » virus is found in sexually active young women.
- Indwelling catheters
- Renal calculi
- BenignPheochromocytoma Clinical Features Diagnosis Treatment. Read more ... » prostatic hyperplasia
- Underlying urinary tract abnormalities
- Indwelling catheter
- Recent urinary tract instrumentation
- Immunocompromise, including diabetes
- Elderly, institutionalized women
- Prostatic enlargement
- Childhood UTI
- Acute pyelonephritis within the prior year
- Frequency of recent sexual intercourse
- Spermicide use
- Stress incontinence
- Hospital-acquired infection
- Symptoms >7 days at presentation
Route of Infection
- Infection enters via the urethra up to the kidneys. The vagina also is a source of infection in females. Hematogenous infection occurs in debilitated and immunocompromised patients.
- Staphylococcus and Candida infections of kidney may follow bacteremia or fungimia from bones, skin and vasculature.
Clinical Presentations Cystitis:
- Symptoms are dysuria, frequency, urgency and suprapubic pain.
- Urine is cloudy with bad odour. There may be hematuriaDIAGNOSIS and Investigations OF SECONDARY HYPERTENSION. Read more ... ».
- Microscopic examinationHow to take good medical history & examination. Read more ... » shows white cells and bacteria.
- There is tenderness in suprapubic area.
- There may be urethritis, vaginitis, and cervicitis In females.
- The presenting symptoms of UTI vary enormously.
- Young patients with bladder infections may have pain with urination;
- urinary frequency or urgency, or both; pelvic or suprapubic discomfort;
- low-grade fevers; or a change in the appearance or odor of their urine.
- Older patients may present with fever, confusion, or coma caused by urosepsis.
Acute pyelonephritis :
- Symptoms develop in a few hours or days.
- There is fever, chills, rigors, nausea, vomitingNausea and Vomiting. Read more ... », diarrhea.
- There is tachycardiaHyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS) Acute Complication Of DM. Read more ... », muscle tenderness, abdominal tenderness.
- There may be gram-negative sepsisSepsis (Septic Shock) Definition Diagnosis and Pathophysiology. Read more ... ».
- There is leukocytosis, and bacteria in urine. There may be leukocyte casts, hematuria.
- The symptoms respond to treatment in 2-3 days.
- If there is abscess, urinary obstruction or other local diseaseMechanical Ventilation Support in Critical Care. Read more ... », the pyelonephritis becomes chronicChronic Hepatitis Classification viral hepatitis Clinical features and Treatment. Read more ... » and does not respond to treatment.
Chronic pyelonephritis :
- Chronic pyelonephritis is chronic interstitial nephritisAcute Renal Failure (ARF) Causes Clinical Features TREATMENT of ARF. Read more ... » due to bacterial infection of the kidney.
- In women with no bacterial growth in urine culture, the following organisms may be responsible for urethritis – C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, Herpes simplex virus.
- There is gradual onset of symptorros of UTI, no hematuria, no pain.
- . But there is gross hematuria, suprapubic pain, fever and burning during micturition in E.coli infection.
- In 10% of hospitalized patients there is bacteriuria. The causative agents are E.coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Staphylococci, Enterococci and Candida.
- There is higher incidence in prolonged catheterization, severe illness, bad catheter care, and if no antibiotics are given.
- Infection reaches the l;>ladder through the urine in the catheter or from the outside-wall of the catheter.
- Catheter-associated UTI can be prevented by using aseptic technique during insertion, care of catheter to minimize cross infection, antibiotic therapy, closed catheter drainage units, regular change of catheters at few weeks intervals.
TREATMENT of Urinary Tract Infection
- A culture and antimicrobial sensitivity-testing must be done before start of treatment.
- Urinary tract obstruction should be corrected. For lower urinary tract infection, short courses of therapy are given.
- Long-term therapy is given for upper tract infections.
- Recurrence after 2 weeks of therapy may be due to infection with the same strain of bacteria.
- For acute cystitis in females – 3 days or 7 days treatment with amoxycillin, TrimethoprimSulphamethoxazole, Cefpodoxime, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Levofloxacin may be given.
- For uncomplicated pyelonephritis in women: Oral or IV QUinolones, Ceftriaxone, Gentamycin IV followed by oral QUinolones for 2 weeks.
- For complicated UTI: Oral quinolones for 2 weeks or IV ampicillin + gentamicin, quinolones, ceftriaxone, or imipenem- cilastatin for 2-3 weeks.