Vasculitis Syndrome Causes Differential Diagnosis Symptoms and Treatment

Vasculitis Syndrome Vasculitis is a disease of blood vessels with in­flammation and damage. Vasculitis may be a disease of the blood vessels itself or it may be secondarily affected due to a systemic disease. destruction of blood vessel walls, with subsequent aneurysm formation, bleeding, thrombosis, or ischemia in the various vascular beds and organs Differential […]

Systemic Sclerosis Diagnosis Symptoms Treatment Management

 Diagnosis Systemic Sclerosis — Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis [SSc]) is a chronic disease of unknown cause characterized by diffuse fibrosis of skin and visceral organs and vascular abnormalities History Raynaud phenomenon is frequently the initial complaint. Skin thickening, “puffy hands,” and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are often noted early in the disease process. Systemic Sclerosis Physical […]

Systemic Sclerosis Classification Prognosis and Complications

Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma) Systemic Sclerosis Classification Epidemiology Pathology Prognosis and Complications It is a chronic multisystem disorder. There is thickening of the skin due to accumula­tion of connective tissue affecting the structure and function of gastrointestinal system (GIT), lungs, heart, kidneys and other organs. There is vascular damage, and other immune processes resulting in damage […]

VARICEAL BLEEDING Clinical features Diagnosis and Treatment

VARICEAL BLEEDING Clinical features Diagnosis and Treatment VARICEAL BLEEDING It results from portal systemic venous collaterals when portal hypertension is more than 12 mmHg. Clinical features,: There is painless hematemesis, tachycardia and even shock. VARICEAL BLEEDING Differential diagnosis : Peptic ulcer and gastritis. Endoscopy is done for proper diagnosis. Variceal bleeding is serious emergency patients […]

Hyperbilirubinemia Classification Types Symptoms Examination

Hyperbilirubinemia Classification Types Symptoms Examination Hyperbilirubinemia Hyperbilirubinemias are conditions where the serum bilirubin is high. An excessive amount of bilirubin in the blood; the condition is seen in any illness causing jaundice, including diseases in which the biliary tree is obstructed, and those in which blood formation is ineffective Pediatrics:In newborns, high bilirubin levels due […]

Some Important Values-Ideal Body Values

Some Important Values- Ideal Body Weight, Body Surface Area, Alveolar-Arterial Gradient, Creatinine Clearance Ideal Body Weight Most healthy infants and children grow in a predictable fashion, following a typical pattern of progression in weight, length, and head circumference. Growth velocity, the change in growth over time, is a more sensitive index of growth than is […]

Pulmonary Thromboembolism Pathophysiology Clinical Features with Treatment

Pulmonary Thromboembolism Pulmonary thromboembolism means the embo­lization and lodgment of thombi in the pulmo­nary vasculature. Predisposing factors PE refers to obstruction of the pulmonary artery or one of its branches by material (eg, thrombus, tumor, air, or fat ) that originated elsewhere in the body. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and often fatal […]

PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE Pathology Clinical Features Symptoms

Vascular Diseases of the Extremities PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE ,RISK FACTORS ,Clinical Features Symptoms , Physical signs with Pathology PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE Increased prevalence in patients of : condition that causes partial or complete obstruction of the flow of blood to or from the arteries or veins outside the chest. Diabetes mellitus Hypercholestrolemia . Hypertension Cigarette […]

Dyslipidemias Causes Risk Factors Epidemiology Etiology

Dyslipidemias Causes Risk Factors Epidemiology Etiology It initiates atherosclerosis. It causes plaque formation. Alters endothelial functions. It enhances coagulability of blood. major classes of lipids are Chylomicrons Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) Intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) Low density lipoproteins (LDL) High density lipoproteins (HDL). Serum cholesterol >200 mg/dL (5.18 mmol/L): Due mainly to lifestyle habits […]

Dyslipidemia in diabetes Signs Management Treatment of Diabetic Dyslipidemia

Dyslipidemia in diabetes Signs Management with Drugs for diabetic dyslipidemics Dyslipidemia in diabetes Hypertriglyceridemia Reduced HDL cholesterol Small dense LDL particles: Highly atherogenic Easily glycated  Susceptible to oxidation. Management of Dyslipidemia in diabetes · Lipids should be aggressively treated · Hyperglycemia should be strictly managed Grave cardiovascular risk in dyslipidemic diabetics Target lipid values in […]

Aplastic Anaemia Causes Symptomes Diagnosis And Treatment

Aplastic Anaemia Causes Symptomes Diagnosis And Treatment Aplastic Anaemia   Anaemias associated with normocytic and normochro­mic red cells and low reticulocyte response (reticulo­cyte index less than 2.5) are called hypoproliferative anaemias. These include iron deficiency anaemia, anaemias in chronic inflamation, renal disease, hypometabolic states and anaemias due to bone marrow damage. APLASTIC ANAEMIA Is a […]

Polycythemia Vera My­elofibrosis Thrombocytosis Cause Diagnosis Treatment

 Polycythemia Vera Diagnosis Type And Treatment Polycythemia Vera Diagnosis   Chronic myeloproliferative disorders are due to over­production of one or more of the formed elements of blood. These are polycythemia vera, chronic idiopathic my­elofibrosis, essential thrombocytosis, chronic myeloid leukemia. Definition Polycythemia Vera My­elofibrosis Polycythemia vera is a clonal disorder with ac­cumulation of phenotypically normal red cells, […]

Acute & Chronic Myeloid Leukemias neoplastic cells of the hemopoietic system

Acute & Chronic Myeloid Leukemias Acute & Chronic Myeloid Leukemias neoplastic cells of the hemopoietic system Acute & Chronic Myeloid Leukemias ,The myeloid leukemias are a group of diseases with infiltration of blood, bone-marrow and other tissues by neoplastic cells of the hemopoietic system     Acute & Chronic Myeloid Leukemias   Acute & Chronic Myeloid Leukemias The myeloid leukemias […]

Deep Vein Thrombosis Embolizations Antiplatelet Anticoagulant Treatment Therapy

Antiplatelet, Anticoagulant & Fibrinolytic Therapy venous thrombosis   ANTIPLATELET, ANTICOAGULANT AND FIBRIN­OLYTIC THERAPY Arterial and venous thrombosis with embolic phenom­enon like deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embo­lism and other embolizations result in morbidity and death. Drugs which prevent thromboembolic phenom­enon are:   Drugs which prevent thromboembolic phenom enon 1. Drugs which inhibit platelet aggregation 2. Drugs […]

Hemoglobinopathies Sickle cell Thalssemia Diagnosis Treatment

Causes of Hemoglobinopathies Blood disorders Syndromes Diagnosis Treatment —   Hemoglobinopathies Oxygen is delivered to tissues by hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is present in erythrocytes in high con­centration and is responsible for the shape of the cell, viscosity of blood and cell deformability. Hemoglobinopathies are disorders of structure, func­tion or production of hemoglobin. Different hemoglobins are produced during embry­onic, […]

Type of Anaemia Megaloblastic Anaemia And Treatment

Diagnosis of Megaloblastic Anaemia and Treatment — Megaloblastic Anaemia The megaloblastic anaemias are disorders caused by impaired synthesis of DNA. Due to slow cell division, the cells are large, called megaloblastic cells, with more RNA than DNA. There may also be ineffective erythropoiesis. Most megaloblastic anaemias are due to deficiency of cobalamin j vitamin B12 […]

Anaemia due to iron deficiency Causes and Treatment

Iron Deficiency Anaemia symptoms , iron deficiency Causes and treatment — Anaemia Hypoproliferative anaemias — are anaemias with normocytic and normochromic red cells and low reticu­locyte index <2.5. Hypoproliferative anaemias are · Iron deficiency anaemia (there is microcytic hypochromic anaemia) · Acute and chronic inflammation with anaemia · Anaemias in malignancy · Anaemia associated with renal […]