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Headache

Headaches I. Background of Headaches — Headache is one of the 20 most frequent reasons that cause patients to visit primary care providers in the United States. In a study of 20,468 patients, migraine headache, one of the common causes of recurrent headache, occurred one or more times yearly in 17.6% of women and in 5.7% […]

Nausea and Vomiting

Nausea is a subjective symptom  disorders that also cause vomiting. Vomiting can result from the stimulation of  four neurologic processes of Nausea and Vomiting — vagal and splanchnic fibers in the viscera, stimulated by distention,infection,or  inflammatory irritation,   vestibular system fibers mediated through muscarinic cholinergic and histamine H1 receptors, sounds, or emotions ,higher central nervous system (CNS) centers where […]

Insomnia sleep disorders Insomnia causes symptoms diagnosis with Insomnia treatment

Insomnia sleep disorders Insomnia causes symptoms diagnosis with Insomnia treatment The subjective experience of insufficient sleep or of sleep that is not refreshing Insomnia is defined as a persistent AND difficulty initiating  to maintaining sleep. Insomnia Insomnia   Insomnia can be a primary ;, however  insomnia is more commonly a secondary symptom to underlying the environmental, medical, some […]

Sleep Disorders Types Diagnose Of Sleep Disorders

How to Diagnose Different Types of Sleep Disorders sleep disorder: Any condition that interferes with sleep, excluding environmental factors such as noise, excess heat or cold, movement (as on a train, bus, or ship), travel through time zones, or change in altitude. Classifies sleep disorders into eight major categories: Insomnia Sleep related breathing disorders Hypersomnias […]

How to Manage Hay Fever at Home

Tips and Tricks for How to manage Hay Fever Common Symptoms of Hay Fever — Sneezing attacks, a streaming nose and itchy eyes are all symptoms of hay fever, which can plague thousands of people. If left untreated, hay fever can make the sufferer feel lousy.  sleep disorders due to difficulty in breathing. There is […]

Thyroid Disorders Examination and Laboratory tests

Thyroid Disorders Thyroid gland produces 2 hormones – Thyroxine or T4 and Triiodothyronine or T3. Functions of the thyroid hormones are: · They help in cell differentiation · Maintain temperature and metabolism. Disorders of Thyroid are due to 1. Overproduction ofthyroid hormone – Thyrotoxi­cosis 2. Decreased production of thyroid hormone – Hy­pothyroidism 3. Thyroid -nodules […]

Porphyrias Inherited disorders Causes Classifications Diagnosis and Treatment

Porphyrias The porphyrias are inherited disorders. porphyrias are metabolic disorders caused by altered activities of enzymes within the heme biosynthetic pathway Acute intermittent porphyria: Pyrroloporphyria; neuropsychiatric–abdominal -Aminolevulinic aciduria; neuropsychiatric–abdominal Congenital erythropoietic porphyria: Günther disease; severe dermatologic Hereditary coproporphyria: Neuropsychiatric, occasionally dermatologic Other rare genetic variants reported Porphobilinogen synthetase deficiency: Porphyria cutanea tarda: Dermatologic Protoporphyria: Erythropoietic […]

Hypothalamic, Pituitary And Other Sellar Masses

HYPOTHALAMIC, PITUITARY AND OTHER SELLAR MASSES Pituitary tumors , Pituitary adenomas   : Commonest tumors are pitu­itary adenomas. These are benign and their features depend on the cell type from which they occur. They may arise from PRL, GH, ACTH, TSH, LH and FSH producing cells r;esulting in features of hyperse­cretion of the hormones. There is autonomous […]

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Diagnosis Symptoms and Treatment

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Diagnosis Symptoms and Treatment Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an au­toimmune disease of unknown etiology in which there is tissue damage by pathogenic antibod­ies. Multisystem autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by fluctuating, chronic course; varies from mild to severe and may be life-threatening (CNS and renal forms) chronic […]

Rheumatoid Arthritis Causes Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment

Rheumatoid Arthritis Causes Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic multisystem disease. There are systemic manifestations. There is persistent inflammatory synovitis. chronic systemic disease marked by inflammation of multiple synovial joints,Involves peripheral joints symmetrically. There is damage of cartilage and bone. Patients typically complain of joint stiffness in the morning rather […]

Sleep Disorders Polysomnography Causes Diagnosis and Treatment

Sleep Disorders Disturbed sleep is one of the most common health problems. Average requirement of sleep is 7-8 hours per night.   States and stages of sleep are defined by character­istic patterns in EEG (electro-encephalogram), EOG (Electrooculogram), EMG (Electromyogram) measured on the chin and neck. Polysomnography The continuous recording of electrophysiologic param­eters of sleep and […]

Viral Diseases

Viral Diseases: Introduction This section discusses viral diseases caused by many type of viruses, those preventable by vaccines, and others causing distinct type of syndromes. Rickettsial illnesses and Kawasaki disease are also included. Disorders caused by hepatotropic viruses , €€papillomaviruses , and HIV (see Gynecology and Infectious Diseases: HIV , mumps  are dealt with elsewhere. […]

Infective Endocarditis Causes of Infective Endocarditis TREATMENT of Infective Endocarditis

  Infective Endocarditis  CLINICAL FEATURES of infective Endocarditis (IE) causes the Infective Endocarditis With TREATMENT  of infective Endocarditis (IE) Proliferation of microorganisms on the endot­helium of heart results in infective endocardi­tis. The typical feature–of the· disease is vegetation. Endocarditis may be caused by any microorganism;  of streptococci or staphylococci; Haemophilus spp. or other HACEK bacteria […]

ARKA Calotropis procera Ayurvedic Medicine for piles and Anal Fistula

ARKA Calotropis procera Arka consists of dried leaves of Calotropis procera ,(Fam. Asclepiadaceae), Ayurvedic Medicine for piles and Anal Fistula ,found wild more or less throughout India.     Scientific classification Kingdom:    Plantae (unranked):    Angiosperms (unranked):    Eudicots (unranked):    Asterids Order:    Gentianales Family:    Asclepiadaceae Genus:    Calotropis Species:    C. procera Binomial name — Calotropis procera   SYNONYMS […]

Pterocarpus marsupium Indian Kino Bijaka ASANA (Heart wood) Ayurvedic Medicine OF inflammation diabetes

  Bijaka ASANA (Heart wood) Asana consists of heart-wood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (Fam. Leguminosae); a moderate to large sized, deciduous tree, upto 30 m high and 2.5 m in girth, with straight clear bole, Brown to chocolate colour, under microscope shows vessels with bordered pits, fibre tracheids, tracheids, fragments of xylem rays and few […]

ATROPA BELLADONA SUCHI MAADAK (NARCOTIC) local anaesthetic Works on CNS

SUCHI ATROPA BELLADONA MAADAK (NARCOTIC) local anaesthetic and analgesic   Local uses in eye dilatation       FAMILY– SOLANACEAE   LATIN NAME— ATROPA BELLADONA   SANSKRIT NAME— SUCHI   HINDI NAME– SAAGANGUR ANGURSHAFA   CHEMICAL COMPOSITION– ATROPINE HYOSCYMINE– 0.81-0.5 %   GUNA   GUNA- LAGHU, RUKSH   RASA- TIKTA, KATU   VIPAKA- KATU   […]

PARSEEK YAVANI HYOSCYAMUS NIGER VEDNASTHAPAN (ANALGESIC) with MAADAK(NARCOTIC) properties works on CNS

  HYOSCYAMUS NIGER or PARSEEK YAVANI VEDNASTHAPAN( ANALGESIC ) and a little MAADAK( NARCOTIC ) works on CNS         FAMILY–   SOLANACEAE   LATIN NAME–   HYOSCYAMUS NIGER   SANSKRIT NAME–   PARSEEK YAVANI YAAVNI TURUSHKA MADKARINI   HINDI NAME-   KHURASANI AJWAIN COMMONLY KNOWN AS HENBANE       PLACE OF ORIGIN- […]

Toxoplasma Infection Transmission Clinical Manifestations Diagnosis Treatment

Definition of  Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma Infection)- Toxoplasmosis is  caused by a parasite called Toxoplasma gondii. Description of Toxoplasmosis. The parasite Toxoplasma gondii multiplies in the intestine of the cat and is shed in cat feces, mainly into litter boxes and garden soil. Infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Approx. 25% of women who become infected for […]

Schistosomiasis Flat Worms Signs and Symptoms with Diagnosis Treatment

Schistosomiasis  Flat Worms Signs and Symptoms  Clinical features with Diagnosis Treatment These are flat worms which can cause morbidity and mortality. They are also called adult flukes and in­vade blood, intestine, lungs and biliary tree.   Schistosomiasis  Flat Worms Man is the definitive host and snails are intermediate hosts. One of several parasitic diseases due […]

Ayurveda Drugs USTUKHUDUS LAVANDULA STOECHAS Specifically work on the CNS and GIT Disorders

  Ayurveda Drugs USTUKHUDUS LAVANDULA STOECHAS Specifically work on the CNS and GIT Disorders EPILESY,PARALYTIC CONDITIONS, NEURALGIA, CONSTIPATION, INDIGESTION, FLATULENCE,STOMACHACHE   USTUKHUDUS   Its paste can be applied in case of OEDEMA. It has an ANTICONVULSIVE action and can also be given in paralytic conditions. Stimulates heart and blood circulation HELPFUL IN MENTAL DEBILITY, PSYCHOSIS, […]

FILARIASIS Lymphatic Systems Disease Causes Diagnosis Signs and Symptoms with Treatment

  Filaria Nematode worm Disease of Lymphatic Systems Transmitted by Mosquitoes   Filariasis   Massive swelling, esp. of the genitalia and lower extremities, resulting from obstruction of lymphatic vessels, for example by filarial parasites, malignancies, neurofibromatosis, or a familial congenital disease (Milroy’s disease). Prolonged swelling can cause an increase in interstitial fibrous tissue and skin […]

Chikungunya Virus Infection Diagnosis Clinical Signs and Symptoms withTreatment

Chikungunya Virus Infection An alphavirus, typically found inSoutheast Asia, or Africa  that can be transmitted to humans by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. After an incubation period of about a week, headache, nausea, vomiting, the virus produces high fevers, and severe joint pain, usually in the wrists or ankles. Chikungunya Virus Infection   Chikungunya Virus   pathogenesis of Chikungunya — […]

Fungal Infections Information Diagnosis Signs and Symptoms with Treatment

Fungal Infections Superficial fungal infections and Systemic fungal infections   Superficial fungal infections are caused by numerousfungi that are capable of superficially invadingthe following: ▪ Skin , Nail apparatus▪ ,Mucosal sites, Oropharynx• Hair/hair follicles, Anogenitalia, Epidermis, These fungi are commensural organisms thatfrequently colonize normal epithelium. • Dermatophytes, Candida species, Malassezia species, Infections can extend more deeply in […]

Trichuris Trichura Whip Worm and Enterobius Vermicularis Pin Worm Diagnosis Treatment

TRICHURIS TRICHURA (WHIP WORM) ,ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS (PIN WORM OR THREAD WORM) Diagnosis and Treatment TRICHURIS TRICHURA (WHIP WORM) It is found worldwide. Two of the most common nematode infections worldwide are pinworm, which is caused by Enterobius vermicularis, and whipworm, which is caused by Trichuris trichiura Trichuris Trichura Whip Worm   Infective stage Trichuris Trichura […]

Cestodes Tape Worms Taenia Saginata & Solium cysticercii neurocysticercosis Diagnosis Treatment

  CESTODES (Tape Worms) TAENIA SAGINATA ,TAENIA SOLIUM ,Neurologic manifestations of cysticercii (neurocysticercosis) Tapeworms, or cestodes, are hermaphroditic flatworm parasites, which can live as parasitic adults in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage (metacestode) of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. A genus of tapeworms, parasitic flatworms belonging to the […]

Echinococcosis or Hydatid Disease Infection Causes Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis with Treatment

ECHINOCOCCOSIS OR HYDATID DISEASE Infection in humans is caused by larva of Echinococ­cus granulosus. The definitive hosts are dogs. ECHINOCOCCOSIS OR HYDATID DISEASE Infection in humans Eggs’are passed in the faeces of dogs. Cysts develop in man after ingestion of eggs. HYDATID DISEASE Infection in humans is caused by larva of Echinococ­cus granulosus Etiology OF ECHINOCOCCOSIS OR HYDATID […]

AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Diagnosis Signs and Symptoms with Treatment

AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) Transmission of HIV Clinical features and Course of HIV infection AIDS is an advanced stage of HIV infection with symp­toms and opportunistic infections, with the CD4 cell count below 200 cells / IJL. Most AIDS patients are typical progressors and have a median survival time of 10 years. Some AIDS pa­tients may have […]

Infections Caused by Gram-Negative PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptom

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES Gram–Negative PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms INFECTIONS DUE TO PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES Gram–Negative Losing the crystal violet stain and taking the color of the red counterstain in Gram’s method of staining, a primary characteristic of certain microorganisms   Bacterial Infections Caused byGram–Negative PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES gram-negative, aerobic, […]

Infections CHOLERA Caused by Vibrio cholerae with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms

All about Bacterial Infections BRUCELLOSIS and CHOLERA Caused by Gram–Negative Vibrio cholerae Gram–Negative Vibrio cholerae with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms An acute infection involving the entire small intestine, marked by profuse, watery, secretory diarrhea. Without treatment, the severe loss of fluids and electrolytes can cause dehydration and vascular collapse. The incubation period is from a […]

Leishmaniasis or Kala-azar vector-borne disease by protozoa called Leish­mania Diagnosis Treatment

 all about Leishmaniasis or Kala-azar Diagnosis signs and symptoms with treatment and classification of Leishmaniasis or Kala-azar   Leishmaniasis or Kala-azar Diagnosis signs and symptoms with treatment Leishmaniasis or Kala-azar is a disease caused by protozoa called Leish­mania. Leishmaniasis or Kala-azar is a vector-borne disease. Rodents are reservoir hosts and humans are inciden­tal hosts for […]

Leprosy Hansen’s Disease types Causes of leprosy sign and Symptoms With Treatment

 Leprosy (Hansen’s Disease) Causes, Symptoms, Signs, Diagnosis With Treatment Leprosy(Hansen’s Disease) types Causes of leprosy sign and Symptoms Leprosy is a chronic infective disease, also called Hansen’s disease. It is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Clinical manifestations are seen in skin, peripheral nervous system, upper respiratory tract, eyes, and testes. The main involvement is of the […]

Bacterial Infections DIPHTHERIA Causes Diagnosis Treatment with Signs and Symptoms

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram-Positive Corynebacterium diphtheriae with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Diphtheria (from the Greek word for leather which refers to the tough pharyngeal membrane that is the clinical hallmark of infection) is an acute, communicable disease caused by the gram-positive bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The membrane is created by a thick, […]

Bacterial Infections LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES Causes Diagnosis Symptoms Treatment

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram-Positive LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Infection with Listeria monocytogenes, an intracellular bacterium found in soil that causes mild food poisoning in healthy persons and severe systemic disease Listeria monocytogenes is an important bacterial pathogen in neonates, immunosuppressed patients, elderly adults, pregnant women, and occasionally, previously healthy […]

Bacterial Infections TETANUS Causes Diagnosis Treatment with Signs and Symptoms

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram-Positive Clostridium tetani with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Bacterial Infections clostridium tetani TETANUS Tetanus is a neurological disease caused by clostridium tetani characterized by increased muscle tone and spasms due to a powerful exotoxin tetano­spasmjnproduced by the bacteria. C. tetani is a Gram positive anaerobic rod with a ter­minal spore […]

Gram-Positive STAPHYLOCOCCAL Bacterial Infections Causes Diagnosis Treatment

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram-Positive STAPHYLOCOCCAL with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections in eye caused by STAPHYLOCOCCAL   NEUMOCOCCAL INFECTIONS . Streptococcus pneumoniae or diplococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of pneumonia. These Gram +ve cocci grow in chains. Some conditions that predispose to pneumococcal infections are overcrowding, viral respiratory infec­tions, […]

Gram-Positive Streptococci Bacterial Infections Causes Diagnosis Treatment

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram-Positive Streptococci with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram-Positive Streptococci The infections caused by Streptococci are · Pharyngitis · Cellulitis · Neonatal sepsis and meningitis · Urinary tract infection · Diabetic ulcer infection · Endocarditis Bacteremia Septic arthritis Dental abscess Brain abscess Sinusitis Liver abscess […]

Acute & Chronic Myeloid Leukemias neoplastic cells of the hemopoietic system

Acute & Chronic Myeloid Leukemias Acute & Chronic Myeloid Leukemias neoplastic cells of the hemopoietic system Acute & Chronic Myeloid Leukemias ,The myeloid leukemias are a group of diseases with infiltration of blood, bone-marrow and other tissues by neoplastic cells of the hemopoietic system     Acute & Chronic Myeloid Leukemias   Acute & Chronic Myeloid Leukemias The myeloid leukemias […]

Lymphoid Malignancies Immunological classification Etiology Diagnodis Treatment

Lymphoid Malignancies Arise from cells of immune systems. and HODGKIN’S DISEASE Lymphoid Malignancies Arise from cells of immune systems, Immunological classification of Acute Leuke­mias , Acute lymphoid leukemia (All) , 8 cell ALL is the most common cancer in child­hood. Incidence of ALL and AML increases in elderly Children with Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21) have increased risk of ALL […]

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Diagnosis Causes Symptoms of STD Information

The Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)  (STD) Sexually Transmitted Compleat information Diseases Causes, Symptoms, (STD) Sexually Transmitted Compleat information Diseases Causes, Symptoms, The Sexually Transmitted Diseases Are a group of communicable diseases that are transmit­ted predominantly by sexual contact and caused by a wide range of bacterial, viral, protozoal and fungal agents and ectoparasites. Classification of sexually […]