Details About Generic Salt ::  Cefotaxi

Main Medicine Class::    

(seff-oh-TAX-eem SO-dee-uhm)
Claforan
Class: Antibiotic/cephalosporin

 

Drugs Class ::

 Action Inhibits mucopeptide synthesis in bacterial cell wall.

Indications for Drugs ::

 Indications Treatment of infections of lower respiratory tract including pneumonia, urinary tract, skin and skin structures, bone and joints; treatment of bacteremia/septicemia, CNS infections, intra-abdominal infections and gynecological infections including pelvic inflammatory disease, endometritis and pelvic cellutis due to susceptible strains of specific microorganisms; perioperative prophylaxis.

Drug Dose ::

 Route/Dosage

Infection

ADULTS: IV/IM Up to 12 g/day in divided doses (from q 4 hr for septicemia to q 12 hr for uncomplicated infection) usually for 7–10 days. IV route is preferable for severe infections. CHILDREN 1 MO-12 YR: IV/IM 50–180 mg/kg/day in 4–6 divided doses. Infants 1–4 wk: IV 50 mg/kg q 8 hr. Neonates < 1 wk: IV 50 mg/kg q 12 hr.

Gonorrhea

ADULTS: IM 1 g as single dose.

Perioperative Prophylaxis

ADULTS: IV/IM 1 g 30–90 min prior to surgery.

Cesarean Section

ADULTS: IV 1 g as soon as umbilical cord is clamped; second and third dose IV/IM at 6- and 12-hr intervals after first dose.

Contraindication ::

 Contraindications Hypersensitivity to cephalosporins.

Drug Precautions ::

 Precautions

Pregnancy: Category B. Lactation: Excreted in breast milk. Children: Cephalosporins may accumulate in neonates. Hypersensitivity: Reactions range from mild to life-threatening. Administer drug with caution to penicillin-sensitive patients due to possible cross-reactivity. Pseudomembranous colitis: Should be considered in patients in whom diarrhea develops. Renal and hepatic impairment: Use drug with caution in patients with renal and hepatic impairment. Dosage adjustment based on renal and hepatic function may be required. Superinfection: May result in bacterial or fungal overgrowth of nonsusceptible microorganisms.

PATIENT CARE CONSIDERATIONS


Drug Side Effects ::

 Adverse Reactions

CNS: Headache; dizziness; fatigue; paresthesia; confusion; nervousness; sleeplessness. GI: Nausea; vomiting; diarrhea; anorexia; abdominal pain or cramps; flatulence; colitis, including pseudomembranous colitis. GU: Pyuria; renal dysfunction; transient elevations in BUN and creatinine; dysuria; reversible interstitial nephritis; hematuria; toxic nephropathy. HEMA: Eosinophilia; neutropenia; lymphocytosis; leukocytosis; thrombocytopenia; decreased platelet function; anemia; aplastic anemia; hemorrhage. HEPA: Hepatic dysfunction; abnormal liver function test results. OTHER: Hypersensitivity, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, pruritus, fever, toxic epidermal necrolysis; candidal overgrowth; serum sickness–like reactions (eg, skin rashes, polyarthritis, arthralgia, fever); phlebitis, thrombophlebitis and pain at injection site.

Drug Mode of Action ::  

 Action Inhibits mucopeptide synthesis in bacterial cell wall.

Drug Interactions ::

 Interactions

Aminoglycosides: Increased risk of nephrotoxicity. INCOMPATIBILITIES: Do not add aminoglycosides to cefotaxime solutions because inactivation of both drugs may result; administer at separate sites if concurrent therapy is indicated.

Drug Assesment ::

 Assessment/Interventions

  • Obtain patient history, including drug history and any known allergies. Note allergy to cephalosporins or penicillins.
  • Obtain specimens for culture and sensitivity before beginning therapy and periodically during treatment. Repeat cultures are indicated if resistance is suspected.
  • Monitor renal function carefully during treatment.
  • Monitor for signs of infection, especially fever, and for positive response to antibiotic therapy.
  • Assess for signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis (shortness of breath, wheezing, laryngeal spasm). Have resuscitation equipment available.
  • Assess for signs of superinfection, such as vaginitis or stomatitis.
  • Assess for severe diarrhea with blood or pus, which may be symptom of pseudomembranous colitis. Symptoms may occur after antibiotic treatment.
  • Monitor IV site for infiltration, infection, and thrombophlebitis.
OVERDOSAGE: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  Seizures, acute renal failure, acidosis, hypernatremia

Drug Storage/Management ::

 Administration/Storage

  • Reconstituted solution should be light yellow to amber. Do not administer if solution is cloudy or precipitate is present.
  • When giving by IM route, inject deeply into large muscle (eg, upper outer quadrant of gluteus muscle or lateral thigh). Massage well.
  • Divide IM 2 g dose and administer in two separate sites.
  • When giving by IV route, administer slowly over 3–5 min. Reconstituted drug may be diluted in 50–100 ml D5W or 0.9% sodium chloride injection and infused over 20–30 min. Change IV sites q 48–72 hr.
  • For perioperative surgical prophylaxis, administer cefotaxime 30–90 min before surgical incision.
  • Store sterile powder at room temperature and protect from light.
  • Reconstituted solutions are stable at room temperature for 24 hr.

Drug Notes ::

 Patient/Family Education

  • Instruct patient to check body temperature daily. If fever persists for more than a few days or if high fever (> 102°F) or shaking chills are noted, physician should be notified immediately.
  • Advise patient to maintain normal fluid intake while using this medication.
  • Advise diabetic patient to use enzyme-based tests (eg, Clinistix, Tes-tape) for monitoring urine glucose because drug may give false results with other tests.
  • Instruct patient to report these symptoms to physician: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, skin rash, hives, sore throat, bruising, bleeding, muscle or joint pain.
  • Warn patient that diarrhea that contains blood or pus may be a sign of serious disorders. Tell patient to seek medical care and not to treat at home.
  • Instruct patient to seek emergency care if wheezing or difficulty in breathing occurs.
  • Instruct patient to report signs of superinfection: black “furry” tongue, white patches in mouth, foul-smelling stools, vaginal itching or discharge.

Disclaimer ::

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