Infections | MedicScientist :: Total Health Portal

All Types of Fever

Definition of fever — fever is an increasing of body temperature above normal under the influence of thermo regulatory center. Abnormal elevation of temperature. The normal temperature taken orally ranges from about 97.6° to 99.6°F, although there is some individual variation. Rectal temperature is 0.5° to 1.0°F higher than oral temperature. thermometer normal body temp […]

How Can Protect Your Oral Health

How Can You Protect Your Oral Health? Having a dental plan ensures an individual’s teeth are healthy and well maintained. A person with a dental plan can also save money by avoiding the high cost of immediate teeth and gum treatments. Importance of dental care Everyone needs to maintain their teeth for healthy gums and […]

Chronic pancreatitis Causes Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment

Chronic pancreatitis Diseases Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment Chronic pancreatitis Pregentation · Abdominal pain · Steatorrhea. A form of pancreatitis that results from repeated or massive pancreatic injury, marked by the formation of scar tissue, which leads to malfunction of the pancreas Irreversible: Progressive destruction of the pancreas Results in both exocrine and endocrine deficiencies Pain, […]

Sepsis (Septic Shock) Clinical Manifestation Complications with Laboratory Findings

Sepsis (Septic Shock) CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS There is some primary infection or disease. Mild sepsis chan,ges to severe, and to septic shock. Patient may be hormo, hypo or hyper thermic i.e. fever normal, low or high Fever is absent in neonates, elderly, alcoholics and in uremia.   Hyperventilation is early sign. Then there is disorientation, confusion, encephalopathy. […]

Pneumonia Signs and Symptoms Pathophysiology Types of Pneumonia

Pneumonia Signs and Symptoms Pathophysiology Types of Pneumonia clinical presentation of childhood pneumonia often is dictated by the responsible pathogen, the particular host, and the severity of the pneumonia. Inflammation of the lungs, usually due to infection with bacteria, viruses, or other pathogenic organisms. Clinically, the term “pneumonia” is used to indicate an infectious disease […]

Treatment of Pneumonia Antibiotic Therapy in Resistant Pneumonia

Treatment of Pneumonia ,INDICATIONS FOR HOSPITALIZATION in Pneumonia ,Resistant Pneumonia defined as an acute infection of the pulmonary parenchyma in a patient who has acquired the infection in the community, as distinguished from hospital-acquired (nosocomial) pneumonia, No comorbidities or recent antibiotic use and Comorbidities or recent antibiotic use Treatment according the condition. The diagnostic approach […]

Viral Diseases

Viral Diseases: Introduction This section discusses viral diseases caused by many type of viruses, those preventable by vaccines, and others causing distinct type of syndromes. Rickettsial illnesses and Kawasaki disease are also included. Disorders caused by hepatotropic viruses , €€papillomaviruses , and HIV (see Gynecology and Infectious Diseases: HIV , mumps  are dealt with elsewhere. […]

Ajamoda Apium leptophyllumconsists of dried aromatic fruits Ayurvedic medicinal herb

Ajamoda Apium leptophyllum consists of dried, aromatic fruits Ayurvedic medicinal herb   lATIN NAME — Apium leptophyllum Family — Umbelliferae   SYNONYMS of Ajamoda Apium leptophyllum —   Sanskrit    : Dipyaka Assamese    : Bonjamani, Yamani, Ajowan Bengali    : Randhuni, Banyamani Kashmiri    : Fakhazur, Banjuan Gujrati      : Bodi Ajamo, Ajamo Hindi        : Ajmuda, Ajmod Kannada    : […]

CONTRACEPTION INTRAUTERINE DEVICES with or without HORMONE RELEASING DEVICES

  CONTRACEPTION INTRAUTERINE DEVICES CONTRACEPTION IT IS A WIDELY ACCEPTABLE REVERSIBLE METHOD OF CONTRACEPTION FOR SPACING BIRTHS. FOR THIS   1.CONTRACEPTION COPPER IMPREGNATED DEVICES LIKE     CuT 200,THIRD GENERATION IUDS CuT 380A, MULTILOAD CuT 250, MULTILOAD 375   2.CONTRACEPTION HORMONE RELEASING DEVICES LIKE   LEVONORGESTREL INTRAUTERINE SYSTEM ( LNG-IUS ) THIRD GENERATION IUDS, PROGESTASERT, LIPPES LOOP.   MODE […]

CONTRACEPTION METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION

CONTRACEPTION ONE OF THE BIGGEST THREATS TO THE GROWTH OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IS THE EXPLOSIVELY INCREASING POPULATION. TO CURB THIS IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT THE MEASURES TO CONTROL IT BE KNOWN TO EACH AND EVERY ONE, IRRESPECTIVE OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS, AGE, MARITAL STATUS AND RACE. FOR THIS THE GOVERNMENT HAS INTRODUCED VARIOUS FAMILY […]

CONTRACEPTIVES NATURAL CONTRACEPTIVES RHYTHM METHOD and CALENDAR METHOD

  CONTRACEPTIVES NATURAL CONTRACEPTIVES   RHYTHM METHOD CONTRACEPTIVES     THIS IS THE ONLY METHOD APPROVED BY THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. IT IS BASSD ON THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE FERTILE PERIOD OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE AND TO ABSTAIN FROM SEXUAL INTERCOURSE DURING THAT PERIOD. IT INCLUDES- a.CALENDAR METHOD CONTRACEPTIVES – THE FIRST UNSAFE DAY IS OBTAINED […]

SLEEPING SICKNESS OR HUMAN AFRICAN TRY­PANOSOMIASIS (HAT)

SLEEPING SICKNESS OR HUMAN AFRICAN TRY­PANOSOMIASIS (HAT) Inflammation of the white and gray matter of the brain. It is almost always associated with inflammation of the meninges (meningoencephalitis) and may involve the spinal cord (encephalomyelitis). Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is also known as sleeping sickness. There are two forms of the disease, one of which […]

Toxoplasma Infection Transmission Clinical Manifestations Diagnosis Treatment

Definition of  Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma Infection)- Toxoplasmosis is  caused by a parasite called Toxoplasma gondii. Description of Toxoplasmosis. The parasite Toxoplasma gondii multiplies in the intestine of the cat and is shed in cat feces, mainly into litter boxes and garden soil. Infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Approx. 25% of women who become infected for […]

Schistosomiasis Flat Worms Signs and Symptoms with Diagnosis Treatment

Schistosomiasis  Flat Worms Signs and Symptoms  Clinical features with Diagnosis Treatment These are flat worms which can cause morbidity and mortality. They are also called adult flukes and in­vade blood, intestine, lungs and biliary tree.   Schistosomiasis  Flat Worms Man is the definitive host and snails are intermediate hosts. One of several parasitic diseases due […]

FALCIPARUM Malaria fever in Different Conditions and Complications Signs and Symptoms

  FALCIPARUM MALARIA Pregnant women have an increased susceptibility to malaria infection. Malarial infection of the placenta by sequestration of the infected red blood cells leading to low birth weight and other effects.   FALCIPARUM Malaria fever   There are four types of malaria caused by the protozoan parasite This fulminant disease often produces coma, […]

Fungal Infections Information Diagnosis Signs and Symptoms with Treatment

Fungal Infections Superficial fungal infections and Systemic fungal infections   Superficial fungal infections are caused by numerousfungi that are capable of superficially invadingthe following: ▪ Skin , Nail apparatus▪ ,Mucosal sites, Oropharynx• Hair/hair follicles, Anogenitalia, Epidermis, These fungi are commensural organisms thatfrequently colonize normal epithelium. • Dermatophytes, Candida species, Malassezia species, Infections can extend more deeply in […]

Helminthic NEMATODES Round Worms Tissue Nematodes TRICHINELLOSIS Diagnosis Treatment

Helminthic Infections Cestodes NEMATODES (Round Worms) Cestodes NEMATODES (Round Worms) Nematodes are elongated and symmetrical round worms. They are classified as intestinal or tissue nematodes. Helminthic Infections Tissue Nematodes TRICHINELLOSIS It develops after ingestion of meat containing cysts of Trichinella, like pork or other meat. Infections are usually mild and asymptomatic. Heavy infections can cause enteritis, periorbital […]

Intestinal Infaction Nematodes ASCARIS Lumbricoides Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment

Intestinal Nematodes Infaction ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES Ascaris lumbricoides is a species of Ascaris that lives in the human intestine and adults may grow to 12 in. long. Eggs are passed with the feces and require at least 2 weeks’ incubation in the soil before they become infective Ascaris lumbricoides, an intestinal roundworm, is one of the most […]

Rickettsial Diseases ROCKY MOUNTAIN AFRICAN TICK BITE RICKETTSIAL POX SPOTTED FEVER

Rickettsial Diseases ,ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER ,MEDITERRANEAN SPOTTED FEVER A genus of bacteria of the family Rickettsiaceae, order Rickettsiales. Their vectors are arthropods such as fleas, ticks, mites, and lice. They are obligate intracellular parasites (must be in living cells to reproduce) and are the causative agents of many diseases.   ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER   These […]

Viruses General Introduction To VIRAL DISEASES Diagnosis Treatment with Causative Agents

Viruses General Introduction To VIRAL DISEASES Diagnosis Causative Agents   Viruses General Introduction To VIRAL DISEASES Diagnosis Viruses Definition Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites which consist of a nucleic acid surrounded by one or more proteins. They can be active, metabolize and replicate only in­side a living cell. Viruses Definition and types Virusoids are nucleic […]

Bird Flu Avian Influenza Diagnosis Causative Virus Signs and Symptoms With Treatment

Bird Flu Bird flu or Avian Influenza is an infectious dis­ease of birds caused by type A influenza virus. There may be pneumonia, ARDS and multi-or­gan failure,Avian influenza A is caused by H5Nl, H7N3, H7N7 and H9N2 strains. The H5Nl virus causes severe disease in man result­ing in death.     Bird FluBird flu or Avian Influenza isaninfectious dis­easeof birds Birds […]

Measles Mumps Causative Virus Diagnosis Clinical Signs and Symptoms With Treatment

Measles, Mumps Causative agents Diagnosis Clinical Signs and Symptoms With Treatment   Measles  Causative Virus Diagnosis Clinical Signs and Symptoms MEASLES Caused by myxoviruses – rubeola. Rubeola means red spots Characterized by : · Fever · URTI – coryza, cough · Typical rash Measles can cause high morbidity and mortality. Measles  Causative Virus ,with Diagnosis […]

RUBELLA and CHICKENPOX SMALLPOX Diagnosis Clinical Signs and Symptoms With Treatment

RUBELLA OR GERMAN MEASLES and CHICKENPOX and SMALLPOX Causative agents Diagnosis Clinical Signs and Symptoms With Treatment RUBELLA OR GERMAN MEASLES   RUBELLA OR GERMAN MEASLES Acute mild infection of children. There is low grade fever, lymphadenopathy, maculo­papular rash, and arthritis in adults. In early pregnancy, rubella infection results in con­genital defects and even death […]

Rabies Hydrophobia Clinical Findings Diagnosis Signs and symptoms with treatment

  Rabies Rabies is also called hydrophobia Incubation period is long Diagnosis Signs and symptoms with treatment Rabies is a preventable zoonotic disease  .  A fatal infection of the central nervous system caused by the rabies virus. The etiologic agents are neurotropic RNA viruses belonging to the Family Rhabdoviridae, Genus Lyssavirus Human infection occurs as […]

Mycoplasma and Chalmydial Infections Signs and Symptoms with Treatment

Mycoplasma and Chalmydial Infections MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS Mycoplasma and Chalmydial Infections MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS Mycoplasma are smallest free-living organisms. They cause upper and lower respiratory tract disease. “!”he organism is M. pneumoniae. Mycoplasma and Chalmydial Infections MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS Age affected is 5-20 years. Mycoplasma and Chalmydial Infections pulmonary manifestations   Signs and Symptoms There is headache, cough, […]

Infections Caused by Gram-Negative PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptom

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES Gram–Negative PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms INFECTIONS DUE TO PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES Gram–Negative Losing the crystal violet stain and taking the color of the red counterstain in Gram’s method of staining, a primary characteristic of certain microorganisms   Bacterial Infections Caused byGram–Negative PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES gram-negative, aerobic, […]

Infections PLAGUE Caused by Gram-Negative Yersinia pestis Species with diagnosis Treatment Signs

All about Bacterial Infections PLAGUE Caused by Gram–Negative Yersinia pestis SPECIES Gram–Negative Yersinia pestis SPECIES with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Any widespread contagious disease associated with a high death rate.  An often fatal disease caused by Yersinia pestis; the natural hosts are ground squirrels, wild rodents and rats, and the vector is the rat flea. Bacterial InfectionsPLAGUE […]

Leprosy Hansen’s Disease types Causes of leprosy sign and Symptoms With Treatment

 Leprosy (Hansen’s Disease) Causes, Symptoms, Signs, Diagnosis With Treatment Leprosy(Hansen’s Disease) types Causes of leprosy sign and Symptoms Leprosy is a chronic infective disease, also called Hansen’s disease. It is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Clinical manifestations are seen in skin, peripheral nervous system, upper respiratory tract, eyes, and testes. The main involvement is of the […]

Gram-Positive STAPHYLOCOCCAL Bacterial Infections Causes Diagnosis Treatment

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram-Positive STAPHYLOCOCCAL with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections in eye caused by STAPHYLOCOCCAL   NEUMOCOCCAL INFECTIONS . Streptococcus pneumoniae or diplococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of pneumonia. These Gram +ve cocci grow in chains. Some conditions that predispose to pneumococcal infections are overcrowding, viral respiratory infec­tions, […]

Gram-Positive Streptococci Bacterial Infections Causes Diagnosis Treatment

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram-Positive Streptococci with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram-Positive Streptococci The infections caused by Streptococci are · Pharyngitis · Cellulitis · Neonatal sepsis and meningitis · Urinary tract infection · Diabetic ulcer infection · Endocarditis Bacteremia Septic arthritis Dental abscess Brain abscess Sinusitis Liver abscess […]

Bacterial Infections LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES Causes Diagnosis Symptoms Treatment

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram-Positive LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Infection with Listeria monocytogenes, an intracellular bacterium found in soil that causes mild food poisoning in healthy persons and severe systemic disease Listeria monocytogenes is an important bacterial pathogen in neonates, immunosuppressed patients, elderly adults, pregnant women, and occasionally, previously healthy […]

Bacterial Infections TETANUS Causes Diagnosis Treatment with Signs and Symptoms

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram-Positive Clostridium tetani with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Bacterial Infections clostridium tetani TETANUS Tetanus is a neurological disease caused by clostridium tetani characterized by increased muscle tone and spasms due to a powerful exotoxin tetano­spasmjnproduced by the bacteria. C. tetani is a Gram positive anaerobic rod with a ter­minal spore […]

Bacterial Infections by Gram-Negative with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram–Negative   with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram–Negative   with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Diseases cause by Gram-negative bacilli : These cause extra-intestinal infections commonly. These bacteria are Escherichia, Klebsiella, Proteus, Enterobacter, Serratia, Citrobacter, Morganella. Escherichia coli causes intestinal disease gastroen­teritis. Gram negative enteric bacteria […]

Bacterial Infections Caused by HACEK GROUP Gram-Negative with diagnosis Treatment

Bacterial Infections Caused by HACEK GROUP Gram-Negative with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Hemophilus, Eikenella,Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Kingella, this is HACEK GROUP of Gram-Negative bacteria,   Bacterial Infections Caused by HACEK GROUP Gram-Negative INFECTIONS DUE TO HACEK GROUP AND OTHER GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA   HACEK group of organisms is slow-growing Gram negative bacteria requiring an atmosphere of CO2, These species are: […]

Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram-Negative LEGIONELLA with diagnosis Treatment

All about Bacterial Infections LEGIONELLA INFECTION Caused by Gram–Negative LEGIONELLA INFECTION   with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram–Negative LEGIONELLA INFECTION LEGIONELLA INFECTION It causes Pontiac fever and Legionnaires’ disease. Pontiac fever is an acute febrile self-limited illness. Legionnaires’ disease is pneumonia caused by Legionella. It is classified as atypici– pneumonia along with the other […]

Infections Caused by SALMONELLA -TYPHOID FEVER with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by SALMONELLA — TYPHOID FEVER with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi cause en­teric (typhoid) fever. Typhoid fever is a systemic disease characterized by fever and abdominal pain. Bacterial Infections Caused bySALMONELLA — TYPHOID FEVER   SALMONELLA INFECTIONS TYPHOID FEVER   Salmonella paratyphi Salmonella typhi   Salmonella […]

HYPER ACIDITY Caused by H.pylori Gram-Negative diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by  HELICOBACTER PYLORI  Gram–Negative HELICOBACTER PYLORI with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION A motile, spiral, gram-negative bacterium that causes peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. It is treated with combined antibiotics and agents to block gastric acid secretion Helicobacter pylori, also known as H. pylori, is a bacterium that […]

How to Prevent Hospital Acquired Infections Prevention and Causes

Hospital Acquired Infections Causes and Prevention – About 5-10% of patients develop HAl Hospital Acquired Infections or nosocomial infections.  Hospital acquired infections are difficult to treat,cause epidemic problems,  costly, have high morbidity, are preventable., There is a high incidence of nosocomial infections in patients on ventilators. Hospital Acquired Infections Causes and Prevention   Hospital Acquired Infections Defenition — Hospital […]