Abdominal Rigidity

Abdominal Rigidity General Signs and Symptoms Abdominal Rigidity [Abdominal Muscle Spasm, Involuntary Guarding] Distinguishing voluntary from involuntary abdominal rigidity is a must for accurate assessment. Review this comparison so that you can quickly tell the two apart. VOLUNTARY RIGIDITY • Usually symmetrical • More rigid on inspiration (expiration causes muscle relaxation) • Eased by relaxation […]

Abdominal pain

General Abdominal pain Abdominal pain arises from the abdominopelvic viscera; the parietal peritoneum; or the capsules of the liver, kidney, or spleen Pain may also be referred to the abdomen, sharp, well-localized, referred pain is felt in skin or deeper tissues and may coexist with skin hyperesthesia and muscle hyperalgesia Abdominal pain usually results from […]

Abdominal Mass

Abdominal Mass Signs and Symptoms Typically, this sign develops insidiously and may represent an enlarged organ, a neoplasm, an abscess, a vascular defect, or a fecal mass. Commonly detected on routine physical examination, an abdominal mass is a localized swelling in one abdominal quadrant. Distinguishing an abdominal mass from a normal structure requires skillful palpation. […]

Abdominal Distention

Abdominal Distention Distention may be mild or severe, depending on the amount of pressure. Abdominal distention refers to increased abdominal girth—the result of increased intra-abdominal pressure forcing the abdominal wall outward. It may be localized or diffuse and may occur gradually or suddenly. Abdominal distention may result from fat, flatus, a fetus (pregnancy or intra-abdominal […]

Metabolic,Insulin Resistance Syndrome X Causes Symptoms

INSULIN RESISTANCE SYNDROMES or Syndrome X Overview (metabolic syndrome)- consists of : Insulin resistance Hypertension Dyslipidemias Obesity – central Endothelial dysfunction Accelerated cardiovascular disease. The co-occurrence of metabolic risk factors for both type 2 diabetes and CVD (abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemias, and hypertension) suggested the existence of a “metabolic syndrome”  . A similar profile can […]

Thyroid Goiter

GOITER of THYROID Acute thyroiditis is an inflammatory condition of thy­roid due to suppurative infection. enlarged thyroid gland may be caused by thyroiditis, benign thyroid nodules, malignancy, iodine deficiency, or any condition that causes hyperfunction or hypofunction of the gland Types of GOITER aberrant goiter: A supernumerary goiter. acute goiter: A goiter that grows rapidly. […]

ACTH and TSH DEFICIENCY Diagnosis with Treatment

ACTH DEFICIENCY ACTH SYNTHESIS — POMC also contains the sequences for other hormonal peptides, including the melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSHs) lipotropins (LPHs), and beta-endorphin (beta-END) ACTH is synthesized as part of a large precursor (241 amino acids in humans) called proopiomelanocortin (POMC). Adrenal insufficiency secondary to ACTH defi­ciency is due to : · glucocorticoid withdrawal after […]

Myxedema coma Diagnosis and Treatment

Myxedema coma  This is a state of hypothyroidism with altered con­sciousness or coma, sometimes seizures. There may be hypothermia. It is common in the elderly, and precipitated by seda-‘ tives, antidepressants, pneumonia, CHF, MI, cere­brovascular accidents. marked by neurological dysfunction, by respiratory depression, and by lowered body temperature, blood pressure, blood sugar, and serum sodium. […]

Hyperthyroidism or THYROTOXICOSIS Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

Thyrotoxicosis is a state of thyroid hormone excess. Hyperthyroidism is excessive thyroid function. Hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis defines a spectrum of clinical findings consistent with thyroid hormone excess. Causes of Thyrotoxicosis Primary hyperthyroidism · Grave’s disease · Toxic multinodular goitre · Toxic adenoma · Thyroid carcinoma · Iodine excess (Jod-Basedow phenomenon) · Subacute thyroiditis · Drugs […]