Crohn S Disease

Details Descriptions About :: Crohn S Disease  Crohn’s disease, also known as regional enteritis or granulomatous colitis, is inflammation of any part of the GI tract (usually the terminal ileum), extending through all layers of the intestinal wall. It may also involve regional lymph nodes and the mesentery. Age Alert Crohn’s disease is most prevalent in adults […]

Spinal Cord Injury

Details Descriptions About :: Spinal Cord Injury  Spinal injuries include fractures, contusions, and compressions of the vertebral column, usually as the result of trauma to the head or neck. The real danger lies in spinal cord damage—cutting, pulling, twisting, or compression. Damage may involve the entire spinal cord or be restricted to one-half, and it can occur […]

Fungal Infections

Details Descriptions About :: Fungal Infections  Fungal infections of the skin are often regarded as superficial infections affecting the hair, nails, and stratum corneum (the dead top layer of the skin). Fungi infect and survive only on the nonviable keratin within these structures. The most common fungal infections are dermatophyte infections (tineas) and candidiasis (moniliasis). Tinea infections […]

Ulcers

Details Descriptions About :: Ulcers  Ulcers, circumscribed lesions in the mucosal membrane extending below the epithelium, can develop in the lower esophagus, stomach, pylorus, duodenum, or jejunum. Although erosions are often referred to as ulcers, erosions are breaks in the mucosal membranes that don’t extend below the epithelium. Ulcers may be acute or chronic in nature. Acute […]

Asthma

Details Descriptions About :: Asthma  Asthma is a reactive airway disorder characterized by inflammation and episodic airway obstruction. Such obstruction results from bronchospasms, increased mucus secretion, and mucosal edema. It’s a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a group of lung diseases characterized by increased airflow resistance. Although it’s a chronic disorder, patients can suffer from acute […]

Sickle Cell Anemia

Details Descriptions About :: Sickle Cell Anemia  A congenital hemolytic anemia that occurs primarily but not exclusively in blacks, sickle cell anemia results from a defective hemoglobin (Hb) molecule (Hb S) that causes red blood cells (RBCs) to become sickle-shaped. Such cells clog capillaries and impair circulation, resulting in chronic ill health (fatigue, dyspnea on exertion, swollen […]

Cataract

Details Descriptions About :: Cataract  A cataract is a gradually developing opacity of the lens or lens capsule. Light shining through the cornea is blocked by this opacity, and a blurred image is cast onto the retina. As a result, the brain interprets a hazy image. Cataracts commonly occur bilaterally, and each progresses independently. Exceptions are traumatic […]

Parkinson S Disease

Details Descriptions About :: Parkinson S Disease  Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the extrapyramidal system. It characteristically produces progressive muscle rigidity, akinesia, and involuntary tremor. Death may result from complications, such as aspiration pneumonia or other infection. Age Alert Parkinson’s disease is one of the most common crippling diseases in the United States. It strikes […]

Cirrhosis

Details Descriptions About :: Cirrhosis  Cirrhosis is a chronic disease characterized by diffuse destruction and fibrotic regeneration of hepatic cells. Mortality is high; many patients die within 5 years of onset. As cirrhosis progresses, complications may occur; these include ascites, portal hypertension, jaundice, coagulopathy, hepatic encephalopathy, bleeding, esophageal varices, acute GI bleeding, liver failure, and renal failure. […]

Sprains

Details Descriptions About :: Sprains  A sprain is a complete or incomplete tear of the supporting ligaments surrounding a joint when a joint is forced beyond its normal range of motion. Joint dislocations and fractures may accompany a severe sprain. The ankle is the most commonly sprained joint. Finger, wrist, knee, and shoulder sprains are also common. […]

Polycythemia Vera

Details Descriptions About :: Polycythemia Vera  Polycythemia vera is a chronic disorder characterized by increased red blood cell (RBC) mass, erythrocytosis, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, elevated hemoglobin level, and low or normal plasma volume. This disease is also known as primary polycythemia, erythremia, or polycythemia rubra vera. It occurs most commonly among Jewish males of European descent. Age Alert […]

Warts

Details Descriptions About :: Warts  Warts, also known as verrucae, are common, benign, viral infections of the skin and adjacent mucous membranes. The prognosis varies; some warts disappear spontaneously, some readily with treatment, and others need vigorous and prolonged treatment. Age Alert Although their incidence is highest in children and young adults, warts may occur at any […]

Hiatal Hernia

Details Descriptions About :: Hiatal Hernia  Hiatal hernia is a defect in the diaphragm that permits a portion of the stomach to pass through the diaphragmatic opening into the chest. Hiatal hernia is the most common problem of the diaphragm affecting the alimentary canal. Treatment can prevent complications such as strangulation of the herniated intrathoracic portion of […]

Fractures

Details Descriptions About :: Fractures  When a force exceeds the compressive or tensile strength of the bone, a fracture will occur. An estimated 25% of the population has traumatic musculoskeletal injury each year, and a significant number of these involve fractures. The prognosis varies with the extent of disability or deformity, amount of tissue and vascular damage, […]

Glomerulonephritis

Details Descriptions About :: Glomerulonephritis  Glomerulonephritis is a bilateral inflammation of the glomeruli, commonly following a streptococcal infection. Acute glomerulonephritis is also called acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Age Alert Acute glomerulonephritis is most common in boys ages 3 to 7 but can occur at any age. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis most commonly occurs between ages 50 and 60. Up […]

Metabolic Syndrome

Details Descriptions About :: Metabolic Syndrome  Metabolic syndrome is a common condition in which obesity, high blood pressure, high blood glucose, and an abnormal cholesterol profile cluster together in one person. When these risk factors occur together, the chance of developing coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes is much greater than when these risk factors develop independently. […]

Amenorrhea

Details Descriptions About :: Amenorrhea  Amenorrhea is the abnormal absence of menstruation. Absence of menstruation is normal before puberty, after menopause, or during pregnancy and lactation; it’s pathologic at any other time. Primary amenorrhea is the absence of menarche in an adolescent by age 14 without the development of secondary sex characteristics or by age 16 with […]

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Details Descriptions About :: Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation  Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) occurs as a complication of diseases and conditions that accelerate clotting. It causes small blood vessel occlusion, organ necrosis, depletion of circulating clotting factors and platelets, activation of the fibrinolytic system, and consequent severe hemorrhage. Clotting in the microcirculation usually affects the kidneys and extremities but […]

Multiple Sclerosis

Details Descriptions About :: Multiple Sclerosis  Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes demyelination of the white matter of the brain and spinal cord and damage to nerve fibers and their targets. Characterized by exacerbations and remissions, MS is a major cause of chronic disability in young adults and its prognosis varies. MS may progress rapidly, disabling the patient by […]

Varicocele

Details Descriptions About :: Varicocele  A mass of dilated and tortuous varicose veins in the spermatic cord is called a varicocele. It’s classically described as a “bag of worms.” Thirty percent of all men diagnosed with infertility have a varicocele; 95% of cases affect the left spermatic cord. Age Alert Varicoceles are more common in men between […]

Stroke

Details Descriptions About :: Stroke  A stroke, also known as a cerebrovascular accident, is a sudden impairment of cerebral circulation in one or more blood vessels. Stroke interrupts or diminishes oxygen supply and commonly causes serious damage or necrosis in the brain tissues. Causes for Stroke Causes Thrombosis of the cerebral arteries supplying the brain or of […]

Alzheimer S Disease

Details Descriptions About :: Alzheimer S Disease  Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive degenerative disorder of the cerebral cortex, especially the frontal lobe. It affects approximately 4 million Americans; by 2040, that figure may exceed 6 million. Age Alert Alzheimer’s disease typically affects adults older than age 60, but some cases have been reported in individuals as young […]

Liver Cancer

Details Descriptions About :: Liver Cancer  Liver cancer, also known as primary or metastatic hepatic carcinoma, is a rare form of cancer in the United States. It’s rapidly fatal, usually within 6 months, from GI hemorrhage, progressive cachexia, liver failure, or metastasis. Age Alert Liver cancer is most prevalent in men (particularly over age 60), and incidence […]

Atopic Dermatitis

Details Descriptions About :: Atopic Dermatitis  Atopic (allergic) dermatitis (also called atopic or infantile eczema) is a chronic or recurrent inflammatory response commonly associated with other atopic diseases, such as bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Age Alert Atopic dermatitis commonly develops in infants and toddlers between ages 1 month and 1 year, usually in those with a […]

Tendinitis

Details Descriptions About :: Tendinitis  Tendinitis is a painful inflammation of tendons and of tendon-muscle attachments to bone, especially in the shoulder rotator cuff, Achilles’ tendon, or hamstring. Causes for Tendinitis Causes Overuse, such as strain during sports activity Other musculoskeletal disorder, such as rheumatic diseases, congenital defects Postural misalignment Abnormal body development Hypermobility Pathophysiology Tendinitis Pathophysiology […]

Endometrial Cancer

Details Descriptions About :: Endometrial Cancer  Also known as uterine cancer (cancer of the endometrium), endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic cancer. Age Alert Uterine cancer usually affects postmenopausal women between ages 50 and 60; it’s uncommon between ages 30 and 40 and extremely rare before age 30. Most premenopausal women who develop uterine cancer have […]

Colorectal Cancer

Details Descriptions About :: Colorectal Cancer  Colorectal cancer is the second most common visceral malignant neoplasm in the United States and Europe. It tends to progress slowly and remains localized for a long time. Incidence is equally distributed between men and women. It’s potentially curable in about 90% of patients if early diagnosis allows resection before nodal […]

Mitral Valve Prolapse

Details Descriptions About :: Mitral Valve Prolapse  Mitral valve prolapse is also called systolic click-murmur syndrome and floppy mitral valve syndrome. It’s probably a congenital abnormality. Causes for Mitral Valve Prolapse Causes Autosomal dominant inheritance Inherited connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta Genetic or environmental interruption of valve development during week […]

Ulcerative Colitis

Details Descriptions About :: Ulcerative Colitis  Ulcerative colitis is a continuous inflammatory disease that affects the mucosa of the colon and rectum. It invariably begins in the rectum and sigmoid colon, and commonly extends upward into the entire colon, rarely affecting the small intestine, except for the terminal ileum. Ulcerative colitis produces edema (leading to mucosal friability) […]

Heart Failure

Details Descriptions About :: Heart Failure  A syndrome rather than a disease, heart failure occurs when the heart can’t pump enough blood to meet the metabolic needs of the body. Heart failure results in intravascular and interstitial volume overload and poor tissue perfusion. Age Alert Incidence of heart failure rises with age. About 1% of people older […]

Hypertension

Details Descriptions About :: Hypertension  Hypertension, an elevation in diastolic or systolic blood pressure, occurs as two major types: primary (essential), which is the most common, and secondary, which results from renal disease or another identifiable cause. Malignant hypertension is a severe, fulminant form of either type. Hypertension is a major cause of cerebrovascular accident, cardiac disease, […]

West Nile Virus

Details Descriptions About :: West Nile Virus  West Nile is a virus transmitted by mosquitos that causes an illness that can range from mild to severe. Mild, flulike illness is commonly called West Nile fever. In its most severe form, West Nile virus can infect the central nervous system and cause meningitis, encephalitis, and death. Causes for […]

Vulvar Cancer

Details Descriptions About :: Vulvar Cancer  Cancer of the vulva accounts for approximately 4% of all gynecologic malignancies. Age Alert Vulvar cancer can occur at any age, even in infants, but its peak incidence is after age 60. The most common vulvar cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. Early diagnosis increases the chance of effective treatment and survival. […]

Polycystic Kidney Disease

Details Descriptions About :: Polycystic Kidney Disease  Polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disorder characterized by multiple, bilateral, grapelike clusters of fluid-filled cysts that enlarge the kidneys, compressing and eventually replacing functioning renal tissue. The disease affects males and females equally and appears in distinct infantile and adult-onset forms. The adult form, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, […]

Diabetes Mellitus

Details Descriptions About :: Diabetes Mellitus  Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from lack of insulin, lack of insulin effect, or both. Three general classifications are recognized: type 1—absolute insulin insufficiency type 2—insulin resistance with varying degrees of insulin secretory defects gestational diabetes—manifested during pregnancy. Age Alert Although possible at any age, type […]

Bone Tumors

Details Descriptions About :: Bone Tumors  Primary malignant bone tumors (also called sarcomas of the bone and bone cancer) are rare, constituting less than 1% of all malignant tumors. Most bone tumors are secondary, caused by seeding from a primary site. Age Alert Primary malignant bone tumors are more common in males, especially in children and adolescents, […]

Cystic Fibrosis

Details Descriptions About :: Cystic Fibrosis  In cystic fibrosis, dysfunction of the exocrine glands affects multiple organ systems. The disorder is characterized by chronic airway infection leading to bronchiectasis, bronchiolectasis, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, intestinal dysfunction, abnormal sweat gland function, and reproductive dysfunction. Cystic fibrosis is accompanied by many complications and has a median survival rate of 31 […]

Pulmonary Embolism

Details Descriptions About :: Pulmonary Embolism  A complication of patients in the health care facility, pulmonary embolism is an obstruction of the pulmonary arterial bed by a dislodged thrombus, heart valve vegetation, or foreign substance. It strikes about 6 million adults each year in the United States, resulting in 100,000 deaths. Causes for Pulmonary Embolism Causes Dislodged […]

Growth Hormone Excess

Details Descriptions About :: Growth Hormone Excess  Growth hormone (GH) excess that begins in adulthood (after epiphyseal closure) is called acromegaly. GH excess that’s present before closure of the epiphyseal growth plates of the long bones causes pituitary gigantism. In both cases, the result is increased growth of bone, cartilage, and other tissues, as well as increased […]

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Details Descriptions About :: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome  Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a form of pulmonary edema that can quickly lead to acute respiratory failure. Also known as adult respiratory distress syndrome, shock lung, stiff lung, white lung, wet lung, or Da Nang lung, ARDS may follow direct or indirect injury to the lung. However, […]

Endometriosis

Details Descriptions About :: Endometriosis  Endometriosis is the presence of endometrial tissue outside the lining of the uterine cavity. Ectopic tissue is generally confined to the pelvic area, usually around the ovaries, uterovesical peritoneum, uterosacral ligaments, and cul de sac, but it can appear anywhere in the body. Active endometriosis may occur at any age, including adolescence. […]

Shock

Details Descriptions About :: Shock  Shock is a clinical syndrome that leads to reduced perfusion of tissues and organs and organ failure. Shock can be classified into three categories: distributive (neurogenic, septic, and anaphylactic), cardiogenic, and hypovolemic. Causes for Shock Causes Neurogenic shock Spinal cord injury, spinal anesthesia Vasomotor center depression Severe pain Medications Hypoglycemia Septic shock […]

Emphysema

Details Descriptions About :: Emphysema  Emphysema, a form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is the abnormal, permanent enlargement of the acini accompanied by destruction of alveolar walls without fibrosis. Obstruction results from tissue changes rather than mucus production, which occurs in asthma and chronic bronchitis. The distinguishing characteristic of emphysema is airflow limitation caused by lack of […]

Pulmonary Hypertension

Details Descriptions About :: Pulmonary Hypertension  Pulmonary hypertension is a mean systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) above 25 mm Hg at rest and 30 mm Hg during exercise. Primary or idiopathic pulmonary hypertension is characterized by increased PAP and increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Age Alert Primary pulmonary hypertension is most common in women ages 20 to 40 […]

Hydrocephalus

Details Descriptions About :: Hydrocephalus  Hydrocephalus is a condition that results from an excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. It results in an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) with corresponding enlargement of the ventricular system. The condition is congenital or acquired, and communicating or noncommunicating (obstructive). Age Alert Hydrocephalus occurs most commonly in children […]

Rheumatic Heart Disease

Details Descriptions About :: Rheumatic Heart Disease  A systemic inflammatory disease of childhood, acute rheumatic fever develops after infection of the upper respiratory tract with group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. It mainly involves the heart, joints, central nervous system, skin, and subcutaneous tissues, and commonly recurs. Rheumatic heart disease refers to the cardiac manifestations of rheumatic fever and […]

Hypopituitarism

Details Descriptions About :: Hypopituitarism  Hypopituitarism, also known as panhypopituitarism, is a complex syndrome marked by metabolic dysfunction, sexual immaturity, and growth retardation (when it occurs in childhood). The cause is a deficiency of the hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Panhypopituitarism is a partial or total failure of all six of this gland’s vital hormones—adrenocorticotropin […]

Lyme Disease

Details Descriptions About :: Lyme Disease  A multisystemic disorder, Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is carried by the minute tick Ixodes dammini (also known as I. scapularis) or another tick in the Ixodidae family. It commonly begins in the summer months with a papule that becomes red and warm but isn’t painful. […]

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Details Descriptions About :: Rheumatoid Arthritis   Causes for Rheumatoid Arthritis Causes Direct cause unknown Proposed mechanisms Abnormal immune activation (in a genetically susceptible person) leading to inflammation, complement activation, and cell proliferation in joints and tendon sheaths Infection (viral or bacterial), hormone action, or lifestyle factors Pathophysiology Rheumatoid Arthritis Pathophysiology The body develops immunoglobulin (Ig) M […]

Varicose Veins

Details Descriptions About :: Varicose Veins  Varicose veins are dilated, tortuous veins, engorged with blood and resulting from poor venous valve function. They can be primary, originating in the superficial veins, or secondary, occurring in the deep veins. Causes for Varicose Veins Causes Primary varicose veins Congenital weakness of valves or vein wall Prolonged venous stasis or […]

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