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Addison’s disease causes symptoms treatment 

Description of Addison’s disease

DescriptionAccording to dictionary definition  Addison’s disease is a primary insufficiency, which is rare. It is common between 30 years and 50 years of age and affects both sexes equally. It is caused when there is destruction of >90% of adrenal gland.    Causes and Risk FactorsAccording to dictionary definition  Addison’s disease is caused due to the lack of secretion of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids from the adrenal gland which is located in the abdomen above the kidney. Common causes include:a) Autoimmune diseasesb) Infections such as tuberculosis (commonest), opportunistic infection in HIV [cytomegalovirus (CMV), mycobacterium avium)c) Primary or metastatic neoplastyd) Traumae) Metabolic disturbance such as amyloidosisf) Drugs such as ketoconazole and megestrol  Signs and SymptomsAccording to dictionary definition  Common symptoms include:1. General debility2. Feebleness of the heart’s action3. Irritability of the stomach4. Peculiar change in the color of the skin5. Asthenia6. Hyperpigmentation (due to excess of melatonin)7. Mood disturbances include emotional liability, low self-esteem, loss of concentration, irritability, and depression to frank psychosis.8. Gastrointestinal tract disturbances which includes,  a) Anorexiab) Weight lossc) Nausead) Vomitinge) Diarrheaf) Abdominal pain9. Hypotension (BP <100/70)  InvestigationsAccording to dictionary definition  Diagnosis of Addison €™s disease remains a clinical dilemma as the signs are non-specific. Common tests include:1. Short adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test2. Other tests include,a) Measurement of serum electrolytes (hyponatremia and hyperkalemia)b) To rule out infectious or autoimmune cause  TreatmentAccording to dictionary definition  Treatments include:1. Specific hormone replacement2. Mineralocorticoid replacement is achieved with fludrocortisones along with ample amounts of salt in diet (3 to 4 g/day).

 

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