All about Bacterial Infections Caused by GramNegative   with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms

Gram-negative bacilli 2
Bacterial Infections Caused by GramNegative   with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms

Diseases cause by Gram-negative bacilli :

  • These cause extra-intestinal infections commonly. These bacteria are Escherichia, Klebsiella, Proteus,
  • Enterobacter, Serratia, Citrobacter, Morganella.
  • Escherichia coli causes intestinal disease gastroen­teritis.
  • Gram negative enteric bacteria can cause serious in­fections in nearly every organ and site e.g. lungs, deep tissues, mediastinum, UTI, blood stream, peri­toneum, soft tissue etc.


  • Amoxycillin + Clavulanic acid,
  • Piperacillin,
  • Cephalosporins,
  • Quinolones,
  • Imipenem,
  • Aminoglycosides.
Meningococcal Infection2
Meningococcal Infectiondiagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms 

Meningococcal Infection–


  • Meningococcal meningitis and fulminant meningococcemia are caused by Neisseria meningitidis, also called meningococci. -+ Penicillin + clavulanic
  • Meningococci also cause pneumonia, septic arthritis, losporins, Quinolones. pericarditis, urethritis, conjunctivitis .
  • Meningococci are Gram-ve diplococci.
  • :rhe disease spreads by respiratory secretions.


  • Cefotaxime – 2 gm IV every 4 hours or Ceftriaxone 2 gm IV 12 hourly.
  • Penicillin G 18 – 24 million units IV / day.
  • Meropenem – 1 gm IV 8 hrly.
  • Fluoroquinolones like gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin.


  • Single injection of quadrivalent meningococcal vac­cine above age of 3 years.
  • The duration of immunity is about 3 – 5 years only.


  • Close contact of cases must receive ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin, or azithromycin.
HEMOPHILUS INFECTIONS diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms 


  • Hemophilus influenzae is gram-negative organism of variable shape, therefore called coccobacillus. It
  • causes respiratory diseases, community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, especially in COPD and AIDS.
  • The most serious disease it can cause is meningitis (H. influenzae type B – HiB).


  • Ceftriaxone – 2 g 12 hrly.
  • Cefotaxime – 2 g 6 hrly.
  • For me’ningitis, glucocorticoids are added to re­duce neurologic sequelae.
  • Vaccination and chemoprophylaxis are also rec­ommended.
MORAXELLA CATARRHALIS diagnosis Tre atment Signs and symptoms 


  • This is a gram-negative coccus causing otitis media, si nusitis, bronchopu Imonary infections.
  • It is also called Neisseria.

Treatment –

Penicillin + clavulanic acid, 3rd generation cephalosporins, quinolones.


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