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Urinary tract infections (utis) causes symptoms treatment 

Description of Urinary tract infections (UTIs)

According to dictionary definition  Description of Urinary tract infections (UTIs)According to dictionary definition  Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in the part of urinary system which may include kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. Commonly, UTI occurs in the lower urinary tract involving bladder and the urethra. Women are more affected by UTI than men. It becomes a painful condition and patients get distressed while passing urine.

The infection of the urinary tract is contagious and can pass on easily to other parts of the urinary system. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent further progress of infection and complications.  Causes and Risk Factors of Urinary tract infections (UTIs)According to dictionary definition  1. Urethra is frequently exposed to infectious organisms due to its anatomy. Either through bowel (intestinal microbes) from anus to urethra or sexual contact these organisms enter in urethra.2. Escherichia coli (E. coli), is a common causative organism.3. Other causative organisms include Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Klebsiella, proteus, and pseudomonas bacteria.
Common risk factors are:1. Gender: Women are commonly affected2. Stasis of urine: When urine is not voided frequently and remains in urinary passage for long time then the infectious organisms can multiply and lead to infection.3. Diabetes mellitus4. Sexual transmitted disease (STDs)5. UTIs6. Sexual activity7. Certain contraceptive measures8. Postmenopausal women9. Immune suppressed conditions  Signs and Symptoms of Urinary tract infections (UTIs)According to dictionary definition  Common symptoms include:1. Strong and continual urge to pass urine2. Burning pain while passing urine3. Passing frequent, small amounts of urine4. Fever with or without chills5. Nausea with or without vomiting6. Blood in the urine — present as red, pink, or cola colored urine7. Strong-smelling, cloudy urine8. Pain in upper back and flank region9. Pelvic pain, especially in women  InvestigationsAccording to dictionary definition  1. Urine examination to check for white blood cells, red blood cells, and bacterial growth2. Urine culture to detect bacteria in culture grown and provide specific treatment3. Urogram — x-ray of urinary system to detect presence of renal stones4. USG or CT scan of abdomen and pelvis to detect any abnormality in urinary system5. Cystoscopy in case of recurrent UTI to view urethra and bladder for any suspected abnormality  Treatment and Prevention  of Urinary tract infections (UTIs)According to dictionary definition  1. Medication includes antibiotics such as amoxicillin, nitrofurantoin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, etc.2. Maintain hygiene3. Hormone replacement therapy with estrogen supplements in case of menopausal women can reduce episodes of UTI.4. Drink plenty of liquids especially water to flush urinary tract5. Empty bladder by passing urine after intercourse6. After urinating or passing bowel, especially women should wipe the region from front to back to prevent entry of infectious microbes back into urethra.7. Avoid feminine products such as douches and powders, in the genital area that can irritate the urethra.  Complications and When Should You See a DoctorAccording to dictionary definition  1. Recurrent infections, especially in case of women2. Permanent kidney damage from an acute or chronic untreated UTI, especially in young children

 

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