Details About Generic Salt ::  Acetazol

Main Medicine Class:: Anticonvulsant,carbonic anhydrase inhibitor   

(uh-seet-uh-ZOLE-uh-mide)
Diamox, Diamox Sequels, Ak-Zol, Dazamide,  Acetazolam, APO-Acetazolamide, Diamox, Novo-Zolamide
Class: Anticonvulsant/carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

 

Drugs Class ::

 Action Inhibits carbonic anhydrase enzyme, reducing rate of aqueous humor formation and thus lowering IOP; produces diuretic effect; retards neuronal conduction in brain.

Indications for Drugs ::

 Indications Adjunctive treatment of chronic simple (openangle) glaucoma and secondary glaucoma; preoperative treatment of acute congestive (closed-angle) glaucoma; prevention or lessening of symptoms associated with acute mountain sickness; adjunctive treatment of (1) edema caused by CHF or drug-induced edema and (2) centrencephalic epilepsies (eg, petit mal, generalized seizures).

Drug Dose ::

 Route/Dosage

Epilepsy

ADULTS & CHILDREN: 8 to 30 mg/kg/day in divided doses; optimum range 375 to 1000 mg daily. When drug is given in combination with other anticonvulsants, initial dosage is 250 mg once daily.

Chronic Simple (Open-Angle) Glaucoma

ADULTS: PO 250 mg to 1 g/day, usually in divided doses for amounts > 250 mg.

Secondary Glaucoma/Preoperative Treatment of Closed-Angle Glaucoma

ADULTS: SHORT-TERM CARE: PO 250 mg q 4 hr or 250 mg bid. ACUTE CARE: PO Initially 500 mg; then 125 to 250 mg q 4 hr. IV therapy may be used for rapid relief of increased IOP. Direct IV administration is preferred because IM route is painful. CHILDREN: ACUTE CARE: IM/IV 5 to 10 mg/kg/dose q 6 hr. LONG-TERM CARE: PO 10 to 15 mg/kg/day in divided doses q 6 to 8 hr.

Diuresis in CHF

ADULTS: PO Initially 250 to 375 mg (5 to 10 mg/day) q AM; then give on alternate days or for 2 days alternating with 1 day of rest.

Drug-Induced Edema

ADULTS: PO 250 to 376 mg qd for 1 to 2 days. CHILDREN: PO/IV 5 mg/kg q AM. Most effective if given every other day or for 2 days alternating with 1 day of rest.

Acute Mountain Sickness

ADULTS: PO 500 to 1000 mg/day in divided doses.

Contraindication ::

 Contraindications Hypersensitivity to other sulfonamides; depressed sodium or potassium serum levels; marked kidney and liver disease or dysfunction; suprarenal gland failure; hyperchloremic acidosis; adrenocortical insufficiency; severe pulmonary obstruction with increased risk of acidosis; cirrhosis; long-term use in chronic noncongestive angle-closure glaucoma. Sustained release dosage form is not recommended for use as anticonvulsant or for treatment of edema caused by CHF or drug-induced edema.

Drug Precautions ::

 Precautions

Pregnancy: Category C. Lactation: Undetermined. Dose increases: Increasing dose does not augment diuresis but may increase drowsiness and paresthesias. Pulmonary conditions: Use in pulmonary obstruction and emphysema may aggravate or precipitate acidosis.

PATIENT CARE CONSIDERATIONS


Drug Side Effects ::

 Adverse Reactions

CNS: Drowsiness; confusion; sensory disturbances, including paresthesia and loss of appetite; convulsions. DERM: Skin rash; urticaria. EENT: Transient myopia; photosensitivity; hearing disturbances; sore throat. GI: Nausea; vomiting; diarrhea; melena. GU: Polyuria; hematuria; glycosuria. HEMA: Blood dyscrasias, including agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia; unusual bleeding or bruising. HEPA: Hepatic insufficiency. OTHER: Flaccid paralysis; fever; flank or loin pain; severe adverse reactions associated with sulfonamides, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

Drug Mode of Action ::  

 Action Inhibits carbonic anhydrase enzyme, reducing rate of aqueous humor formation and thus lowering IOP; produces diuretic effect; retards neuronal conduction in brain.

Drug Interactions ::

 Interactions

Diflunisal: May cause significant decrease in IOP. Primidone: Primidone concentrations may be decreased. Quinidine: Quinidine serum levels may be increased. Salicylates: May cause acetazolamide accumulation and toxicity, including CNS depression and metabolic acidosis.

Drug Assesment ::

 Assessment/Interventions

  • Obtain patient history, including drug history and any known allergies.
  • Assess baseline CBC and platelet count before initiating therapy. Monitor at regular intervals.
  • If medication is being used as diuretic, monitor weight and I&O throughout therapy.
  • Monitor electrolyte levels throughout therapy.
  • Take appropriate seizure precautions.
  • Observe for signs of sulfonamide allergy and toxicity (eg, fever, rash, fluid retention).
  • Check for signs of hypokalemia (eg, low serum potassium levels, muscle weakness, cardiac arrhythmia) and metabolic acidosis (eg, confusion, drowsiness, lethargy, headache, abdominal pain, cardiac arrhythmia, Kussmaul respirations).
  • In patients with glaucoma, monitor IOP frequently.
  • Notify physician immediately if patient develops increased difficulty in breathing or signs of toxicity (eg, drowsiness, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, paresthesia, ataxia, tremor, tinnitus).
  • Notify physician if the following signs occur: Sore throat, fever, unusual bleeding or bruising, tingling or tremors in hands or feet, loin pain, or skin rash.

Drug Storage/Management ::

 Administration/Storage

  • Administer with food. Tablets can be crushed and mixed with sweet foods to mask bitter taste.
  • Do not crush sustained-release capsules; open and sprinkle contents on food.
  • To prevent dehydration, give patient 2000 to 3000 ml/day of fluids, unless contraindicated.
  • Store in a cool, dry location at room temperature.

Drug Notes ::

 Patient/Family Education

  • Advise patient to take medication with food to decrease gastric irritation and upset.
  • Instruct seizure patients not to stop taking medication suddenly because doing so can cause seizures.
  • Caution patient to avoid sudden or rapid position changes to prevent orthostatic hypotension.
  • Advise patient to eat foods high in potassium and to avoid black licorice.
  • Caution patient about possible temporary difficulty with far vision.
  • Advise patient that drug may cause drowsiness and to use caution while driving or performing other tasks requiring mental alertness.
  • Encourage patient to carry medical ID card or wear Medi-Alert bracelet if taking drug for control of seizures.
  • Instruct patient not to take any otc medications without consulting physician.

Disclaimer ::

The Information available on this site is for only Informational Purpose , before any use of this information please consult your Doctor .Price of the drugs indicated above may not match to real price due to many possible reasons may , including local taxes etc.. These are only approximate indicative prices of the drug.

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