Article Contents ::

Details About Generic Salt ::  Perphen1

Main Medicine Class:: Psychotherapeutic combination   

(per-FEN-uh-zeen/am-ee-TRIP-tih-leen)
Triavil 2–10, Triavil 2–25, Triavil 4–10, Triavil 4–25, Triavil 4–50, Etrafon 2–10, Etrafon, Etrafon-A, Etrafon-Forte,  Apo-Peram, Elavil Plus, PMS-Levazine, Proavil
Class: Psychotherapeutic combination

 

Action Amitriptyline blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in CNS. Perphenazine appears to block postsynaptic dopamine receptors.

 

Indications Treatment of moderate-to-severe anxiety or agitation and depressed mood; moderate to severe depression and anxiety associated with chronic physical disease; treatment of patients in whom depression and anxiety cannot be clearly differentiated; treatment of schizophrenia with associated depression.

 

Contraindications Hypersensitivity to phenothiazines; depression of CNS due to drugs (eg, barbiturates, alcohol, narcotics, analgesics, antihistamines); bone marrow depression; hypersensitivity to tricyclic antidepressant. Should not be given concomitantly with MAO inhibitors, suspected or established subcortical brain damage. Not recommended for use during acute recovery phases of myocardial infarction.

 

Route/Dosage

ADULTS: PO Initially, usual dose is 2 to 4 mg perphenazine with 10 to 50 mg amitriptyline tid to qid.

 

Interactions

Alcohol: May result in increased CNS depression and may precipitate extrapyramidal reaction. Amphetamines: May antagonize antipsychotic effects of perphenazine. Anticholinergics: May reduce therapeutic effects of perphenazine and worsen anticholinergic effects. Concomitant administration may worsen schizophrenic symptoms and lead to tardive dyskinesia. Barbiturate anesthetics: Frequency and severity of neuromuscular excitation and hypotension may increase. Barbiturates, carbamazepine, charcoal: May cause decreased amitriptyline blood levels. Cimetidine, fluoxetine, haloperidol, oral contraceptives: May cause increased amitriptyline blood levels. Clonidine: May result in hypertensive crisis. CNS depressants: Depressant effects may be addictive. Guanethidine: Hypotensive action may be inhibited. Lithium: Possible neurotoxicity with perphenazine and may increase effects of amitriptyline. MAO inhibitors: Do NOT use this product with MAO inhibitors as hyperpyretic crisis, severe convulsions and death may result. When switching from MAO inhibitors, wait 14 days and initiate with low doses, increasing dosage gradually until desired response is achieved. Metrizamide: Seizure risk may be increased. Sympathomimetics: Increased pressor effects.

 

Lab Test Interferences May discolor urine pink to red-brown. False positive pregnancy test results may occur, but are less likely to occur with serum test. Increases in protein bound iodine have been reported.

 

Adverse Reactions

CV: Orthostatic hypotension; hypertension; tachycardia; bradycardia; syncope; cardiac arrest; circulatory collapse; arrhythmias; lightheadedness; faintness; dizziness; EKG changes; palpitations. CNS: Sedation; neurologic impairments; extrapyramidal symptoms (eg, pseudoparkinsonism); dystonia; dyskinesia, motor restlessness; oculogyric crisis; opisthotonos; hyperreflexia; tardive dyskinesia; drowsiness; headache; weakness; anxiety; agitation; mania; exacerbation of psychosis; dizziness; tremor; fatigue; slurring of speech; insomnia; vertigo, seizures; abnormalities of CSF proteins; paradoxical excitement or exacerbation of psychotic symptoms; catatonic-like states; paranoid reactions; lethargy; hyperactivity; nocturnal confusion; bizarre dreams. DERM: Photosensitivity reaction; skin pigmentation; dry skin; exfoliative dermatitis; urticarial rash; maculopapular hypersensitivity reaction; seborrhea; eczema; acne; pruritus. EENT: Pigmentary retinopathy; glaucoma; photophobia; rhinitis; pharyngitis; tinnitus; blurred vision; nasal congestion; mydriasis; increased IOP. GI: Dyspepsia; adynamic ileus (may cause death); constipation; nausea; vomiting; anorexia; diarrhea; peculiar taste; dry mouth or throat. GU: Urinary hesitancy or retention; impotence; sexual dysfunction; menstrual irregularities; nocturia. HEMA: Agranulocytosis; eosinophilia; leukopenia; hemolytic anemia; thrombocytopenic purpura. HEPA: Jaundice. META: Hyperglycemia; hypoglycemia. RESP: Laryngospasm; bronchospasm; dyspnea; cough. OTHER: Increases in appetite and weight; polydipsia; breast enlargement; galactorrhea; increased prolactin levels.

 

Precautions

Pregnancy: Safety not established. Lactation: Safety not established. Elderly: More susceptible to adverse effects. Special-risk patients: Use caution in patients with cardiovascular disease or mitral insufficiency, history of glaucoma, EEG abnormalities or seizure disorders, prior brain damage, hepatic or renal impairment. CNS effects: May impair mental or physical abilities, especially during first few days of therapy. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS): Has occurred with agents of this class; is potentially fatal. Signs and symptoms are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, irregular pulse, irregular blood pressure, tachycardia and diaphoresis. Sudden death: Has been reported; predisposing factors may be seizures or previous brain damage. Flare-up of psychotic behavior may precede death. Tardive dyskinesia: Syndrome of potentially irreversible involuntary body and facial movements may develop. Prevalence highest in elderly, especially women. Use smallest effective doses for shortest time possible.

PATIENT CARE CONSIDERATIONS


 

Administration/Storage

  • Administer oral medication with meals or with full glass of milk or water.
  • Oral concentrate should be used in hospital setting only and diluted with water, milk, fruit juice, soup, saline, or lemon-lime carbonated soft drink.
  • Store tablets in tightly covered, light-resistant container.

 

Assessment/Interventions

  • Obtain patient history, including drug history and any known allergies.
  • Monitor blood cell counts with differential, hepatic, and renal function studies, ECG, and ophthalmic status throughout therapy.
  • Monitor for jaundice. If present, notify physician immediately.
  • Monitor for potential signs of pseudoparkinsonism, dystonia, dyskinesia, or akathisia and report to physician.
  • Monitor for evidence of tardive dyskinesia (eg, involuntary dyskinetic movements of tongue, lips, mouth, face or jaw) and report to physician.
  • Assess for signs of orthostatic hypotension; take orthostatic blood pressures and report to physician.
  • Report any significant unexplained temperature increase to physician.
OVERDOSAGE: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  Confusion, tachycardia, visual hallucinations, sedation, hypothermia, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, dilated pupils, seizures, hypotension, coma, hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, hyperactive reflexes, death

 

Patient/Family Education

  • Instruct patient to avoid intake of alcoholic beverages or other CNS depressants.
  • Tell patient to use caution in driving or operating machinery.
  • Advise patient that the medication may take days to weeks before having a full effect.
  • Instruct patient to avoid becoming overheated.
  • Caution patient to avoid exposure to sunlight and to use sunscreen or wear protective clothing to minimize photosensitivity reaction.
  • Teach patient to change position slowly if dizziness occurs.
  • Instruct patient to take sips of water frequently, suck on ice chips or sugarless hard candy or chew sugarless gum if dry mouth occurs.
  • Instruct patient to report the following symptoms to physician: Dizziness, drooling, restlessness, tremors, stiffness, or muscle spasms.
  • Instruct patient to report involuntary face, tongue, mouth, or lip movements to physician.
  • Explain that urine may turn reddish-brown.

 

Drugs Class ::

(per-FEN-uh-zeen/am-ee-TRIP-tih-leen)
Triavil 2–10, Triavil 2–25, Triavil 4–10, Triavil 4–25, Triavil 4–50, Etrafon 2–10, Etrafon, Etrafon-A, Etrafon-Forte,  Apo-Peram, Elavil Plus, PMS-Levazine, Proavil
Class: Psychotherapeutic combination

 

Action Amitriptyline blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in CNS. Perphenazine appears to block postsynaptic dopamine receptors.

 

Indications Treatment of moderate-to-severe anxiety or agitation and depressed mood; moderate to severe depression and anxiety associated with chronic physical disease; treatment of patients in whom depression and anxiety cannot be clearly differentiated; treatment of schizophrenia with associated depression.

 

Contraindications Hypersensitivity to phenothiazines; depression of CNS due to drugs (eg, barbiturates, alcohol, narcotics, analgesics, antihistamines); bone marrow depression; hypersensitivity to tricyclic antidepressant. Should not be given concomitantly with MAO inhibitors, suspected or established subcortical brain damage. Not recommended for use during acute recovery phases of myocardial infarction.

 

Route/Dosage

ADULTS: PO Initially, usual dose is 2 to 4 mg perphenazine with 10 to 50 mg amitriptyline tid to qid.

 

Interactions

Alcohol: May result in increased CNS depression and may precipitate extrapyramidal reaction. Amphetamines: May antagonize antipsychotic effects of perphenazine. Anticholinergics: May reduce therapeutic effects of perphenazine and worsen anticholinergic effects. Concomitant administration may worsen schizophrenic symptoms and lead to tardive dyskinesia. Barbiturate anesthetics: Frequency and severity of neuromuscular excitation and hypotension may increase. Barbiturates, carbamazepine, charcoal: May cause decreased amitriptyline blood levels. Cimetidine, fluoxetine, haloperidol, oral contraceptives: May cause increased amitriptyline blood levels. Clonidine: May result in hypertensive crisis. CNS depressants: Depressant effects may be addictive. Guanethidine: Hypotensive action may be inhibited. Lithium: Possible neurotoxicity with perphenazine and may increase effects of amitriptyline. MAO inhibitors: Do NOT use this product with MAO inhibitors as hyperpyretic crisis, severe convulsions and death may result. When switching from MAO inhibitors, wait 14 days and initiate with low doses, increasing dosage gradually until desired response is achieved. Metrizamide: Seizure risk may be increased. Sympathomimetics: Increased pressor effects.

 

Lab Test Interferences May discolor urine pink to red-brown. False positive pregnancy test results may occur, but are less likely to occur with serum test. Increases in protein bound iodine have been reported.

 

Adverse Reactions

CV: Orthostatic hypotension; hypertension; tachycardia; bradycardia; syncope; cardiac arrest; circulatory collapse; arrhythmias; lightheadedness; faintness; dizziness; EKG changes; palpitations. CNS: Sedation; neurologic impairments; extrapyramidal symptoms (eg, pseudoparkinsonism); dystonia; dyskinesia, motor restlessness; oculogyric crisis; opisthotonos; hyperreflexia; tardive dyskinesia; drowsiness; headache; weakness; anxiety; agitation; mania; exacerbation of psychosis; dizziness; tremor; fatigue; slurring of speech; insomnia; vertigo, seizures; abnormalities of CSF proteins; paradoxical excitement or exacerbation of psychotic symptoms; catatonic-like states; paranoid reactions; lethargy; hyperactivity; nocturnal confusion; bizarre dreams. DERM: Photosensitivity reaction; skin pigmentation; dry skin; exfoliative dermatitis; urticarial rash; maculopapular hypersensitivity reaction; seborrhea; eczema; acne; pruritus. EENT: Pigmentary retinopathy; glaucoma; photophobia; rhinitis; pharyngitis; tinnitus; blurred vision; nasal congestion; mydriasis; increased IOP. GI: Dyspepsia; adynamic ileus (may cause death); constipation; nausea; vomiting; anorexia; diarrhea; peculiar taste; dry mouth or throat. GU: Urinary hesitancy or retention; impotence; sexual dysfunction; menstrual irregularities; nocturia. HEMA: Agranulocytosis; eosinophilia; leukopenia; hemolytic anemia; thrombocytopenic purpura. HEPA: Jaundice. META: Hyperglycemia; hypoglycemia. RESP: Laryngospasm; bronchospasm; dyspnea; cough. OTHER: Increases in appetite and weight; polydipsia; breast enlargement; galactorrhea; increased prolactin levels.

 

Precautions

Pregnancy: Safety not established. Lactation: Safety not established. Elderly: More susceptible to adverse effects. Special-risk patients: Use caution in patients with cardiovascular disease or mitral insufficiency, history of glaucoma, EEG abnormalities or seizure disorders, prior brain damage, hepatic or renal impairment. CNS effects: May impair mental or physical abilities, especially during first few days of therapy. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS): Has occurred with agents of this class; is potentially fatal. Signs and symptoms are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, irregular pulse, irregular blood pressure, tachycardia and diaphoresis. Sudden death: Has been reported; predisposing factors may be seizures or previous brain damage. Flare-up of psychotic behavior may precede death. Tardive dyskinesia: Syndrome of potentially irreversible involuntary body and facial movements may develop. Prevalence highest in elderly, especially women. Use smallest effective doses for shortest time possible.

PATIENT CARE CONSIDERATIONS


 

Administration/Storage

  • Administer oral medication with meals or with full glass of milk or water.
  • Oral concentrate should be used in hospital setting only and diluted with water, milk, fruit juice, soup, saline, or lemon-lime carbonated soft drink.
  • Store tablets in tightly covered, light-resistant container.

 

Assessment/Interventions

  • Obtain patient history, including drug history and any known allergies.
  • Monitor blood cell counts with differential, hepatic, and renal function studies, ECG, and ophthalmic status throughout therapy.
  • Monitor for jaundice. If present, notify physician immediately.
  • Monitor for potential signs of pseudoparkinsonism, dystonia, dyskinesia, or akathisia and report to physician.
  • Monitor for evidence of tardive dyskinesia (eg, involuntary dyskinetic movements of tongue, lips, mouth, face or jaw) and report to physician.
  • Assess for signs of orthostatic hypotension; take orthostatic blood pressures and report to physician.
  • Report any significant unexplained temperature increase to physician.
OVERDOSAGE: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  Confusion, tachycardia, visual hallucinations, sedation, hypothermia, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, dilated pupils, seizures, hypotension, coma, hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, hyperactive reflexes, death

 

Patient/Family Education

  • Instruct patient to avoid intake of alcoholic beverages or other CNS depressants.
  • Tell patient to use caution in driving or operating machinery.
  • Advise patient that the medication may take days to weeks before having a full effect.
  • Instruct patient to avoid becoming overheated.
  • Caution patient to avoid exposure to sunlight and to use sunscreen or wear protective clothing to minimize photosensitivity reaction.
  • Teach patient to change position slowly if dizziness occurs.
  • Instruct patient to take sips of water frequently, suck on ice chips or sugarless hard candy or chew sugarless gum if dry mouth occurs.
  • Instruct patient to report the following symptoms to physician: Dizziness, drooling, restlessness, tremors, stiffness, or muscle spasms.
  • Instruct patient to report involuntary face, tongue, mouth, or lip movements to physician.
  • Explain that urine may turn reddish-brown.

Indications for Drugs ::

(per-FEN-uh-zeen/am-ee-TRIP-tih-leen)
Triavil 2–10, Triavil 2–25, Triavil 4–10, Triavil 4–25, Triavil 4–50, Etrafon 2–10, Etrafon, Etrafon-A, Etrafon-Forte,  Apo-Peram, Elavil Plus, PMS-Levazine, Proavil
Class: Psychotherapeutic combination

 

Action Amitriptyline blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in CNS. Perphenazine appears to block postsynaptic dopamine receptors.

 

Indications Treatment of moderate-to-severe anxiety or agitation and depressed mood; moderate to severe depression and anxiety associated with chronic physical disease; treatment of patients in whom depression and anxiety cannot be clearly differentiated; treatment of schizophrenia with associated depression.

 

Contraindications Hypersensitivity to phenothiazines; depression of CNS due to drugs (eg, barbiturates, alcohol, narcotics, analgesics, antihistamines); bone marrow depression; hypersensitivity to tricyclic antidepressant. Should not be given concomitantly with MAO inhibitors, suspected or established subcortical brain damage. Not recommended for use during acute recovery phases of myocardial infarction.

 

Route/Dosage

ADULTS: PO Initially, usual dose is 2 to 4 mg perphenazine with 10 to 50 mg amitriptyline tid to qid.

 

Interactions

Alcohol: May result in increased CNS depression and may precipitate extrapyramidal reaction. Amphetamines: May antagonize antipsychotic effects of perphenazine. Anticholinergics: May reduce therapeutic effects of perphenazine and worsen anticholinergic effects. Concomitant administration may worsen schizophrenic symptoms and lead to tardive dyskinesia. Barbiturate anesthetics: Frequency and severity of neuromuscular excitation and hypotension may increase. Barbiturates, carbamazepine, charcoal: May cause decreased amitriptyline blood levels. Cimetidine, fluoxetine, haloperidol, oral contraceptives: May cause increased amitriptyline blood levels. Clonidine: May result in hypertensive crisis. CNS depressants: Depressant effects may be addictive. Guanethidine: Hypotensive action may be inhibited. Lithium: Possible neurotoxicity with perphenazine and may increase effects of amitriptyline. MAO inhibitors: Do NOT use this product with MAO inhibitors as hyperpyretic crisis, severe convulsions and death may result. When switching from MAO inhibitors, wait 14 days and initiate with low doses, increasing dosage gradually until desired response is achieved. Metrizamide: Seizure risk may be increased. Sympathomimetics: Increased pressor effects.

 

Lab Test Interferences May discolor urine pink to red-brown. False positive pregnancy test results may occur, but are less likely to occur with serum test. Increases in protein bound iodine have been reported.

 

Adverse Reactions

CV: Orthostatic hypotension; hypertension; tachycardia; bradycardia; syncope; cardiac arrest; circulatory collapse; arrhythmias; lightheadedness; faintness; dizziness; EKG changes; palpitations. CNS: Sedation; neurologic impairments; extrapyramidal symptoms (eg, pseudoparkinsonism); dystonia; dyskinesia, motor restlessness; oculogyric crisis; opisthotonos; hyperreflexia; tardive dyskinesia; drowsiness; headache; weakness; anxiety; agitation; mania; exacerbation of psychosis; dizziness; tremor; fatigue; slurring of speech; insomnia; vertigo, seizures; abnormalities of CSF proteins; paradoxical excitement or exacerbation of psychotic symptoms; catatonic-like states; paranoid reactions; lethargy; hyperactivity; nocturnal confusion; bizarre dreams. DERM: Photosensitivity reaction; skin pigmentation; dry skin; exfoliative dermatitis; urticarial rash; maculopapular hypersensitivity reaction; seborrhea; eczema; acne; pruritus. EENT: Pigmentary retinopathy; glaucoma; photophobia; rhinitis; pharyngitis; tinnitus; blurred vision; nasal congestion; mydriasis; increased IOP. GI: Dyspepsia; adynamic ileus (may cause death); constipation; nausea; vomiting; anorexia; diarrhea; peculiar taste; dry mouth or throat. GU: Urinary hesitancy or retention; impotence; sexual dysfunction; menstrual irregularities; nocturia. HEMA: Agranulocytosis; eosinophilia; leukopenia; hemolytic anemia; thrombocytopenic purpura. HEPA: Jaundice. META: Hyperglycemia; hypoglycemia. RESP: Laryngospasm; bronchospasm; dyspnea; cough. OTHER: Increases in appetite and weight; polydipsia; breast enlargement; galactorrhea; increased prolactin levels.

 

Precautions

Pregnancy: Safety not established. Lactation: Safety not established. Elderly: More susceptible to adverse effects. Special-risk patients: Use caution in patients with cardiovascular disease or mitral insufficiency, history of glaucoma, EEG abnormalities or seizure disorders, prior brain damage, hepatic or renal impairment. CNS effects: May impair mental or physical abilities, especially during first few days of therapy. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS): Has occurred with agents of this class; is potentially fatal. Signs and symptoms are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, irregular pulse, irregular blood pressure, tachycardia and diaphoresis. Sudden death: Has been reported; predisposing factors may be seizures or previous brain damage. Flare-up of psychotic behavior may precede death. Tardive dyskinesia: Syndrome of potentially irreversible involuntary body and facial movements may develop. Prevalence highest in elderly, especially women. Use smallest effective doses for shortest time possible.

PATIENT CARE CONSIDERATIONS


 

Administration/Storage

  • Administer oral medication with meals or with full glass of milk or water.
  • Oral concentrate should be used in hospital setting only and diluted with water, milk, fruit juice, soup, saline, or lemon-lime carbonated soft drink.
  • Store tablets in tightly covered, light-resistant container.

 

Assessment/Interventions

  • Obtain patient history, including drug history and any known allergies.
  • Monitor blood cell counts with differential, hepatic, and renal function studies, ECG, and ophthalmic status throughout therapy.
  • Monitor for jaundice. If present, notify physician immediately.
  • Monitor for potential signs of pseudoparkinsonism, dystonia, dyskinesia, or akathisia and report to physician.
  • Monitor for evidence of tardive dyskinesia (eg, involuntary dyskinetic movements of tongue, lips, mouth, face or jaw) and report to physician.
  • Assess for signs of orthostatic hypotension; take orthostatic blood pressures and report to physician.
  • Report any significant unexplained temperature increase to physician.
OVERDOSAGE: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  Confusion, tachycardia, visual hallucinations, sedation, hypothermia, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, dilated pupils, seizures, hypotension, coma, hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, hyperactive reflexes, death

 

Patient/Family Education

  • Instruct patient to avoid intake of alcoholic beverages or other CNS depressants.
  • Tell patient to use caution in driving or operating machinery.
  • Advise patient that the medication may take days to weeks before having a full effect.
  • Instruct patient to avoid becoming overheated.
  • Caution patient to avoid exposure to sunlight and to use sunscreen or wear protective clothing to minimize photosensitivity reaction.
  • Teach patient to change position slowly if dizziness occurs.
  • Instruct patient to take sips of water frequently, suck on ice chips or sugarless hard candy or chew sugarless gum if dry mouth occurs.
  • Instruct patient to report the following symptoms to physician: Dizziness, drooling, restlessness, tremors, stiffness, or muscle spasms.
  • Instruct patient to report involuntary face, tongue, mouth, or lip movements to physician.
  • Explain that urine may turn reddish-brown.

Drug Dose ::

(per-FEN-uh-zeen/am-ee-TRIP-tih-leen)
Triavil 2–10, Triavil 2–25, Triavil 4–10, Triavil 4–25, Triavil 4–50, Etrafon 2–10, Etrafon, Etrafon-A, Etrafon-Forte,  Apo-Peram, Elavil Plus, PMS-Levazine, Proavil
Class: Psychotherapeutic combination

 

Action Amitriptyline blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in CNS. Perphenazine appears to block postsynaptic dopamine receptors.

 

Indications Treatment of moderate-to-severe anxiety or agitation and depressed mood; moderate to severe depression and anxiety associated with chronic physical disease; treatment of patients in whom depression and anxiety cannot be clearly differentiated; treatment of schizophrenia with associated depression.

 

Contraindications Hypersensitivity to phenothiazines; depression of CNS due to drugs (eg, barbiturates, alcohol, narcotics, analgesics, antihistamines); bone marrow depression; hypersensitivity to tricyclic antidepressant. Should not be given concomitantly with MAO inhibitors, suspected or established subcortical brain damage. Not recommended for use during acute recovery phases of myocardial infarction.

 

Route/Dosage

ADULTS: PO Initially, usual dose is 2 to 4 mg perphenazine with 10 to 50 mg amitriptyline tid to qid.

 

Interactions

Alcohol: May result in increased CNS depression and may precipitate extrapyramidal reaction. Amphetamines: May antagonize antipsychotic effects of perphenazine. Anticholinergics: May reduce therapeutic effects of perphenazine and worsen anticholinergic effects. Concomitant administration may worsen schizophrenic symptoms and lead to tardive dyskinesia. Barbiturate anesthetics: Frequency and severity of neuromuscular excitation and hypotension may increase. Barbiturates, carbamazepine, charcoal: May cause decreased amitriptyline blood levels. Cimetidine, fluoxetine, haloperidol, oral contraceptives: May cause increased amitriptyline blood levels. Clonidine: May result in hypertensive crisis. CNS depressants: Depressant effects may be addictive. Guanethidine: Hypotensive action may be inhibited. Lithium: Possible neurotoxicity with perphenazine and may increase effects of amitriptyline. MAO inhibitors: Do NOT use this product with MAO inhibitors as hyperpyretic crisis, severe convulsions and death may result. When switching from MAO inhibitors, wait 14 days and initiate with low doses, increasing dosage gradually until desired response is achieved. Metrizamide: Seizure risk may be increased. Sympathomimetics: Increased pressor effects.

 

Lab Test Interferences May discolor urine pink to red-brown. False positive pregnancy test results may occur, but are less likely to occur with serum test. Increases in protein bound iodine have been reported.

 

Adverse Reactions

CV: Orthostatic hypotension; hypertension; tachycardia; bradycardia; syncope; cardiac arrest; circulatory collapse; arrhythmias; lightheadedness; faintness; dizziness; EKG changes; palpitations. CNS: Sedation; neurologic impairments; extrapyramidal symptoms (eg, pseudoparkinsonism); dystonia; dyskinesia, motor restlessness; oculogyric crisis; opisthotonos; hyperreflexia; tardive dyskinesia; drowsiness; headache; weakness; anxiety; agitation; mania; exacerbation of psychosis; dizziness; tremor; fatigue; slurring of speech; insomnia; vertigo, seizures; abnormalities of CSF proteins; paradoxical excitement or exacerbation of psychotic symptoms; catatonic-like states; paranoid reactions; lethargy; hyperactivity; nocturnal confusion; bizarre dreams. DERM: Photosensitivity reaction; skin pigmentation; dry skin; exfoliative dermatitis; urticarial rash; maculopapular hypersensitivity reaction; seborrhea; eczema; acne; pruritus. EENT: Pigmentary retinopathy; glaucoma; photophobia; rhinitis; pharyngitis; tinnitus; blurred vision; nasal congestion; mydriasis; increased IOP. GI: Dyspepsia; adynamic ileus (may cause death); constipation; nausea; vomiting; anorexia; diarrhea; peculiar taste; dry mouth or throat. GU: Urinary hesitancy or retention; impotence; sexual dysfunction; menstrual irregularities; nocturia. HEMA: Agranulocytosis; eosinophilia; leukopenia; hemolytic anemia; thrombocytopenic purpura. HEPA: Jaundice. META: Hyperglycemia; hypoglycemia. RESP: Laryngospasm; bronchospasm; dyspnea; cough. OTHER: Increases in appetite and weight; polydipsia; breast enlargement; galactorrhea; increased prolactin levels.

 

Precautions

Pregnancy: Safety not established. Lactation: Safety not established. Elderly: More susceptible to adverse effects. Special-risk patients: Use caution in patients with cardiovascular disease or mitral insufficiency, history of glaucoma, EEG abnormalities or seizure disorders, prior brain damage, hepatic or renal impairment. CNS effects: May impair mental or physical abilities, especially during first few days of therapy. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS): Has occurred with agents of this class; is potentially fatal. Signs and symptoms are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, irregular pulse, irregular blood pressure, tachycardia and diaphoresis. Sudden death: Has been reported; predisposing factors may be seizures or previous brain damage. Flare-up of psychotic behavior may precede death. Tardive dyskinesia: Syndrome of potentially irreversible involuntary body and facial movements may develop. Prevalence highest in elderly, especially women. Use smallest effective doses for shortest time possible.

PATIENT CARE CONSIDERATIONS


 

Administration/Storage

  • Administer oral medication with meals or with full glass of milk or water.
  • Oral concentrate should be used in hospital setting only and diluted with water, milk, fruit juice, soup, saline, or lemon-lime carbonated soft drink.
  • Store tablets in tightly covered, light-resistant container.

 

Assessment/Interventions

  • Obtain patient history, including drug history and any known allergies.
  • Monitor blood cell counts with differential, hepatic, and renal function studies, ECG, and ophthalmic status throughout therapy.
  • Monitor for jaundice. If present, notify physician immediately.
  • Monitor for potential signs of pseudoparkinsonism, dystonia, dyskinesia, or akathisia and report to physician.
  • Monitor for evidence of tardive dyskinesia (eg, involuntary dyskinetic movements of tongue, lips, mouth, face or jaw) and report to physician.
  • Assess for signs of orthostatic hypotension; take orthostatic blood pressures and report to physician.
  • Report any significant unexplained temperature increase to physician.
OVERDOSAGE: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  Confusion, tachycardia, visual hallucinations, sedation, hypothermia, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, dilated pupils, seizures, hypotension, coma, hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, hyperactive reflexes, death

 

Patient/Family Education

  • Instruct patient to avoid intake of alcoholic beverages or other CNS depressants.
  • Tell patient to use caution in driving or operating machinery.
  • Advise patient that the medication may take days to weeks before having a full effect.
  • Instruct patient to avoid becoming overheated.
  • Caution patient to avoid exposure to sunlight and to use sunscreen or wear protective clothing to minimize photosensitivity reaction.
  • Teach patient to change position slowly if dizziness occurs.
  • Instruct patient to take sips of water frequently, suck on ice chips or sugarless hard candy or chew sugarless gum if dry mouth occurs.
  • Instruct patient to report the following symptoms to physician: Dizziness, drooling, restlessness, tremors, stiffness, or muscle spasms.
  • Instruct patient to report involuntary face, tongue, mouth, or lip movements to physician.
  • Explain that urine may turn reddish-brown.

Contraindication ::

(per-FEN-uh-zeen/am-ee-TRIP-tih-leen)
Triavil 2–10, Triavil 2–25, Triavil 4–10, Triavil 4–25, Triavil 4–50, Etrafon 2–10, Etrafon, Etrafon-A, Etrafon-Forte,  Apo-Peram, Elavil Plus, PMS-Levazine, Proavil
Class: Psychotherapeutic combination

 

Action Amitriptyline blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in CNS. Perphenazine appears to block postsynaptic dopamine receptors.

 

Indications Treatment of moderate-to-severe anxiety or agitation and depressed mood; moderate to severe depression and anxiety associated with chronic physical disease; treatment of patients in whom depression and anxiety cannot be clearly differentiated; treatment of schizophrenia with associated depression.

 

Contraindications Hypersensitivity to phenothiazines; depression of CNS due to drugs (eg, barbiturates, alcohol, narcotics, analgesics, antihistamines); bone marrow depression; hypersensitivity to tricyclic antidepressant. Should not be given concomitantly with MAO inhibitors, suspected or established subcortical brain damage. Not recommended for use during acute recovery phases of myocardial infarction.

 

Route/Dosage

ADULTS: PO Initially, usual dose is 2 to 4 mg perphenazine with 10 to 50 mg amitriptyline tid to qid.

 

Interactions

Alcohol: May result in increased CNS depression and may precipitate extrapyramidal reaction. Amphetamines: May antagonize antipsychotic effects of perphenazine. Anticholinergics: May reduce therapeutic effects of perphenazine and worsen anticholinergic effects. Concomitant administration may worsen schizophrenic symptoms and lead to tardive dyskinesia. Barbiturate anesthetics: Frequency and severity of neuromuscular excitation and hypotension may increase. Barbiturates, carbamazepine, charcoal: May cause decreased amitriptyline blood levels. Cimetidine, fluoxetine, haloperidol, oral contraceptives: May cause increased amitriptyline blood levels. Clonidine: May result in hypertensive crisis. CNS depressants: Depressant effects may be addictive. Guanethidine: Hypotensive action may be inhibited. Lithium: Possible neurotoxicity with perphenazine and may increase effects of amitriptyline. MAO inhibitors: Do NOT use this product with MAO inhibitors as hyperpyretic crisis, severe convulsions and death may result. When switching from MAO inhibitors, wait 14 days and initiate with low doses, increasing dosage gradually until desired response is achieved. Metrizamide: Seizure risk may be increased. Sympathomimetics: Increased pressor effects.

 

Lab Test Interferences May discolor urine pink to red-brown. False positive pregnancy test results may occur, but are less likely to occur with serum test. Increases in protein bound iodine have been reported.

 

Adverse Reactions

CV: Orthostatic hypotension; hypertension; tachycardia; bradycardia; syncope; cardiac arrest; circulatory collapse; arrhythmias; lightheadedness; faintness; dizziness; EKG changes; palpitations. CNS: Sedation; neurologic impairments; extrapyramidal symptoms (eg, pseudoparkinsonism); dystonia; dyskinesia, motor restlessness; oculogyric crisis; opisthotonos; hyperreflexia; tardive dyskinesia; drowsiness; headache; weakness; anxiety; agitation; mania; exacerbation of psychosis; dizziness; tremor; fatigue; slurring of speech; insomnia; vertigo, seizures; abnormalities of CSF proteins; paradoxical excitement or exacerbation of psychotic symptoms; catatonic-like states; paranoid reactions; lethargy; hyperactivity; nocturnal confusion; bizarre dreams. DERM: Photosensitivity reaction; skin pigmentation; dry skin; exfoliative dermatitis; urticarial rash; maculopapular hypersensitivity reaction; seborrhea; eczema; acne; pruritus. EENT: Pigmentary retinopathy; glaucoma; photophobia; rhinitis; pharyngitis; tinnitus; blurred vision; nasal congestion; mydriasis; increased IOP. GI: Dyspepsia; adynamic ileus (may cause death); constipation; nausea; vomiting; anorexia; diarrhea; peculiar taste; dry mouth or throat. GU: Urinary hesitancy or retention; impotence; sexual dysfunction; menstrual irregularities; nocturia. HEMA: Agranulocytosis; eosinophilia; leukopenia; hemolytic anemia; thrombocytopenic purpura. HEPA: Jaundice. META: Hyperglycemia; hypoglycemia. RESP: Laryngospasm; bronchospasm; dyspnea; cough. OTHER: Increases in appetite and weight; polydipsia; breast enlargement; galactorrhea; increased prolactin levels.

 

Precautions

Pregnancy: Safety not established. Lactation: Safety not established. Elderly: More susceptible to adverse effects. Special-risk patients: Use caution in patients with cardiovascular disease or mitral insufficiency, history of glaucoma, EEG abnormalities or seizure disorders, prior brain damage, hepatic or renal impairment. CNS effects: May impair mental or physical abilities, especially during first few days of therapy. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS): Has occurred with agents of this class; is potentially fatal. Signs and symptoms are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, irregular pulse, irregular blood pressure, tachycardia and diaphoresis. Sudden death: Has been reported; predisposing factors may be seizures or previous brain damage. Flare-up of psychotic behavior may precede death. Tardive dyskinesia: Syndrome of potentially irreversible involuntary body and facial movements may develop. Prevalence highest in elderly, especially women. Use smallest effective doses for shortest time possible.

PATIENT CARE CONSIDERATIONS


 

Administration/Storage

  • Administer oral medication with meals or with full glass of milk or water.
  • Oral concentrate should be used in hospital setting only and diluted with water, milk, fruit juice, soup, saline, or lemon-lime carbonated soft drink.
  • Store tablets in tightly covered, light-resistant container.

 

Assessment/Interventions

  • Obtain patient history, including drug history and any known allergies.
  • Monitor blood cell counts with differential, hepatic, and renal function studies, ECG, and ophthalmic status throughout therapy.
  • Monitor for jaundice. If present, notify physician immediately.
  • Monitor for potential signs of pseudoparkinsonism, dystonia, dyskinesia, or akathisia and report to physician.
  • Monitor for evidence of tardive dyskinesia (eg, involuntary dyskinetic movements of tongue, lips, mouth, face or jaw) and report to physician.
  • Assess for signs of orthostatic hypotension; take orthostatic blood pressures and report to physician.
  • Report any significant unexplained temperature increase to physician.
OVERDOSAGE: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  Confusion, tachycardia, visual hallucinations, sedation, hypothermia, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, dilated pupils, seizures, hypotension, coma, hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, hyperactive reflexes, death

 

Patient/Family Education

  • Instruct patient to avoid intake of alcoholic beverages or other CNS depressants.
  • Tell patient to use caution in driving or operating machinery.
  • Advise patient that the medication may take days to weeks before having a full effect.
  • Instruct patient to avoid becoming overheated.
  • Caution patient to avoid exposure to sunlight and to use sunscreen or wear protective clothing to minimize photosensitivity reaction.
  • Teach patient to change position slowly if dizziness occurs.
  • Instruct patient to take sips of water frequently, suck on ice chips or sugarless hard candy or chew sugarless gum if dry mouth occurs.
  • Instruct patient to report the following symptoms to physician: Dizziness, drooling, restlessness, tremors, stiffness, or muscle spasms.
  • Instruct patient to report involuntary face, tongue, mouth, or lip movements to physician.
  • Explain that urine may turn reddish-brown.

Drug Precautions ::

(per-FEN-uh-zeen/am-ee-TRIP-tih-leen)
Triavil 2–10, Triavil 2–25, Triavil 4–10, Triavil 4–25, Triavil 4–50, Etrafon 2–10, Etrafon, Etrafon-A, Etrafon-Forte,  Apo-Peram, Elavil Plus, PMS-Levazine, Proavil
Class: Psychotherapeutic combination

 

Action Amitriptyline blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in CNS. Perphenazine appears to block postsynaptic dopamine receptors.

 

Indications Treatment of moderate-to-severe anxiety or agitation and depressed mood; moderate to severe depression and anxiety associated with chronic physical disease; treatment of patients in whom depression and anxiety cannot be clearly differentiated; treatment of schizophrenia with associated depression.

 

Contraindications Hypersensitivity to phenothiazines; depression of CNS due to drugs (eg, barbiturates, alcohol, narcotics, analgesics, antihistamines); bone marrow depression; hypersensitivity to tricyclic antidepressant. Should not be given concomitantly with MAO inhibitors, suspected or established subcortical brain damage. Not recommended for use during acute recovery phases of myocardial infarction.

 

Route/Dosage

ADULTS: PO Initially, usual dose is 2 to 4 mg perphenazine with 10 to 50 mg amitriptyline tid to qid.

 

Interactions

Alcohol: May result in increased CNS depression and may precipitate extrapyramidal reaction. Amphetamines: May antagonize antipsychotic effects of perphenazine. Anticholinergics: May reduce therapeutic effects of perphenazine and worsen anticholinergic effects. Concomitant administration may worsen schizophrenic symptoms and lead to tardive dyskinesia. Barbiturate anesthetics: Frequency and severity of neuromuscular excitation and hypotension may increase. Barbiturates, carbamazepine, charcoal: May cause decreased amitriptyline blood levels. Cimetidine, fluoxetine, haloperidol, oral contraceptives: May cause increased amitriptyline blood levels. Clonidine: May result in hypertensive crisis. CNS depressants: Depressant effects may be addictive. Guanethidine: Hypotensive action may be inhibited. Lithium: Possible neurotoxicity with perphenazine and may increase effects of amitriptyline. MAO inhibitors: Do NOT use this product with MAO inhibitors as hyperpyretic crisis, severe convulsions and death may result. When switching from MAO inhibitors, wait 14 days and initiate with low doses, increasing dosage gradually until desired response is achieved. Metrizamide: Seizure risk may be increased. Sympathomimetics: Increased pressor effects.

 

Lab Test Interferences May discolor urine pink to red-brown. False positive pregnancy test results may occur, but are less likely to occur with serum test. Increases in protein bound iodine have been reported.

 

Adverse Reactions

CV: Orthostatic hypotension; hypertension; tachycardia; bradycardia; syncope; cardiac arrest; circulatory collapse; arrhythmias; lightheadedness; faintness; dizziness; EKG changes; palpitations. CNS: Sedation; neurologic impairments; extrapyramidal symptoms (eg, pseudoparkinsonism); dystonia; dyskinesia, motor restlessness; oculogyric crisis; opisthotonos; hyperreflexia; tardive dyskinesia; drowsiness; headache; weakness; anxiety; agitation; mania; exacerbation of psychosis; dizziness; tremor; fatigue; slurring of speech; insomnia; vertigo, seizures; abnormalities of CSF proteins; paradoxical excitement or exacerbation of psychotic symptoms; catatonic-like states; paranoid reactions; lethargy; hyperactivity; nocturnal confusion; bizarre dreams. DERM: Photosensitivity reaction; skin pigmentation; dry skin; exfoliative dermatitis; urticarial rash; maculopapular hypersensitivity reaction; seborrhea; eczema; acne; pruritus. EENT: Pigmentary retinopathy; glaucoma; photophobia; rhinitis; pharyngitis; tinnitus; blurred vision; nasal congestion; mydriasis; increased IOP. GI: Dyspepsia; adynamic ileus (may cause death); constipation; nausea; vomiting; anorexia; diarrhea; peculiar taste; dry mouth or throat. GU: Urinary hesitancy or retention; impotence; sexual dysfunction; menstrual irregularities; nocturia. HEMA: Agranulocytosis; eosinophilia; leukopenia; hemolytic anemia; thrombocytopenic purpura. HEPA: Jaundice. META: Hyperglycemia; hypoglycemia. RESP: Laryngospasm; bronchospasm; dyspnea; cough. OTHER: Increases in appetite and weight; polydipsia; breast enlargement; galactorrhea; increased prolactin levels.

 

Precautions

Pregnancy: Safety not established. Lactation: Safety not established. Elderly: More susceptible to adverse effects. Special-risk patients: Use caution in patients with cardiovascular disease or mitral insufficiency, history of glaucoma, EEG abnormalities or seizure disorders, prior brain damage, hepatic or renal impairment. CNS effects: May impair mental or physical abilities, especially during first few days of therapy. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS): Has occurred with agents of this class; is potentially fatal. Signs and symptoms are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, irregular pulse, irregular blood pressure, tachycardia and diaphoresis. Sudden death: Has been reported; predisposing factors may be seizures or previous brain damage. Flare-up of psychotic behavior may precede death. Tardive dyskinesia: Syndrome of potentially irreversible involuntary body and facial movements may develop. Prevalence highest in elderly, especially women. Use smallest effective doses for shortest time possible.

PATIENT CARE CONSIDERATIONS


 

Administration/Storage

  • Administer oral medication with meals or with full glass of milk or water.
  • Oral concentrate should be used in hospital setting only and diluted with water, milk, fruit juice, soup, saline, or lemon-lime carbonated soft drink.
  • Store tablets in tightly covered, light-resistant container.

 

Assessment/Interventions

  • Obtain patient history, including drug history and any known allergies.
  • Monitor blood cell counts with differential, hepatic, and renal function studies, ECG, and ophthalmic status throughout therapy.
  • Monitor for jaundice. If present, notify physician immediately.
  • Monitor for potential signs of pseudoparkinsonism, dystonia, dyskinesia, or akathisia and report to physician.
  • Monitor for evidence of tardive dyskinesia (eg, involuntary dyskinetic movements of tongue, lips, mouth, face or jaw) and report to physician.
  • Assess for signs of orthostatic hypotension; take orthostatic blood pressures and report to physician.
  • Report any significant unexplained temperature increase to physician.
OVERDOSAGE: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  Confusion, tachycardia, visual hallucinations, sedation, hypothermia, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, dilated pupils, seizures, hypotension, coma, hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, hyperactive reflexes, death

 

Patient/Family Education

  • Instruct patient to avoid intake of alcoholic beverages or other CNS depressants.
  • Tell patient to use caution in driving or operating machinery.
  • Advise patient that the medication may take days to weeks before having a full effect.
  • Instruct patient to avoid becoming overheated.
  • Caution patient to avoid exposure to sunlight and to use sunscreen or wear protective clothing to minimize photosensitivity reaction.
  • Teach patient to change position slowly if dizziness occurs.
  • Instruct patient to take sips of water frequently, suck on ice chips or sugarless hard candy or chew sugarless gum if dry mouth occurs.
  • Instruct patient to report the following symptoms to physician: Dizziness, drooling, restlessness, tremors, stiffness, or muscle spasms.
  • Instruct patient to report involuntary face, tongue, mouth, or lip movements to physician.
  • Explain that urine may turn reddish-brown.

Drug Side Effects ::

(per-FEN-uh-zeen/am-ee-TRIP-tih-leen)
Triavil 2–10, Triavil 2–25, Triavil 4–10, Triavil 4–25, Triavil 4–50, Etrafon 2–10, Etrafon, Etrafon-A, Etrafon-Forte,  Apo-Peram, Elavil Plus, PMS-Levazine, Proavil
Class: Psychotherapeutic combination

 

Action Amitriptyline blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in CNS. Perphenazine appears to block postsynaptic dopamine receptors.

 

Indications Treatment of moderate-to-severe anxiety or agitation and depressed mood; moderate to severe depression and anxiety associated with chronic physical disease; treatment of patients in whom depression and anxiety cannot be clearly differentiated; treatment of schizophrenia with associated depression.

 

Contraindications Hypersensitivity to phenothiazines; depression of CNS due to drugs (eg, barbiturates, alcohol, narcotics, analgesics, antihistamines); bone marrow depression; hypersensitivity to tricyclic antidepressant. Should not be given concomitantly with MAO inhibitors, suspected or established subcortical brain damage. Not recommended for use during acute recovery phases of myocardial infarction.

 

Route/Dosage

ADULTS: PO Initially, usual dose is 2 to 4 mg perphenazine with 10 to 50 mg amitriptyline tid to qid.

 

Interactions

Alcohol: May result in increased CNS depression and may precipitate extrapyramidal reaction. Amphetamines: May antagonize antipsychotic effects of perphenazine. Anticholinergics: May reduce therapeutic effects of perphenazine and worsen anticholinergic effects. Concomitant administration may worsen schizophrenic symptoms and lead to tardive dyskinesia. Barbiturate anesthetics: Frequency and severity of neuromuscular excitation and hypotension may increase. Barbiturates, carbamazepine, charcoal: May cause decreased amitriptyline blood levels. Cimetidine, fluoxetine, haloperidol, oral contraceptives: May cause increased amitriptyline blood levels. Clonidine: May result in hypertensive crisis. CNS depressants: Depressant effects may be addictive. Guanethidine: Hypotensive action may be inhibited. Lithium: Possible neurotoxicity with perphenazine and may increase effects of amitriptyline. MAO inhibitors: Do NOT use this product with MAO inhibitors as hyperpyretic crisis, severe convulsions and death may result. When switching from MAO inhibitors, wait 14 days and initiate with low doses, increasing dosage gradually until desired response is achieved. Metrizamide: Seizure risk may be increased. Sympathomimetics: Increased pressor effects.

 

Lab Test Interferences May discolor urine pink to red-brown. False positive pregnancy test results may occur, but are less likely to occur with serum test. Increases in protein bound iodine have been reported.

 

Adverse Reactions

CV: Orthostatic hypotension; hypertension; tachycardia; bradycardia; syncope; cardiac arrest; circulatory collapse; arrhythmias; lightheadedness; faintness; dizziness; EKG changes; palpitations. CNS: Sedation; neurologic impairments; extrapyramidal symptoms (eg, pseudoparkinsonism); dystonia; dyskinesia, motor restlessness; oculogyric crisis; opisthotonos; hyperreflexia; tardive dyskinesia; drowsiness; headache; weakness; anxiety; agitation; mania; exacerbation of psychosis; dizziness; tremor; fatigue; slurring of speech; insomnia; vertigo, seizures; abnormalities of CSF proteins; paradoxical excitement or exacerbation of psychotic symptoms; catatonic-like states; paranoid reactions; lethargy; hyperactivity; nocturnal confusion; bizarre dreams. DERM: Photosensitivity reaction; skin pigmentation; dry skin; exfoliative dermatitis; urticarial rash; maculopapular hypersensitivity reaction; seborrhea; eczema; acne; pruritus. EENT: Pigmentary retinopathy; glaucoma; photophobia; rhinitis; pharyngitis; tinnitus; blurred vision; nasal congestion; mydriasis; increased IOP. GI: Dyspepsia; adynamic ileus (may cause death); constipation; nausea; vomiting; anorexia; diarrhea; peculiar taste; dry mouth or throat. GU: Urinary hesitancy or retention; impotence; sexual dysfunction; menstrual irregularities; nocturia. HEMA: Agranulocytosis; eosinophilia; leukopenia; hemolytic anemia; thrombocytopenic purpura. HEPA: Jaundice. META: Hyperglycemia; hypoglycemia. RESP: Laryngospasm; bronchospasm; dyspnea; cough. OTHER: Increases in appetite and weight; polydipsia; breast enlargement; galactorrhea; increased prolactin levels.

 

Precautions

Pregnancy: Safety not established. Lactation: Safety not established. Elderly: More susceptible to adverse effects. Special-risk patients: Use caution in patients with cardiovascular disease or mitral insufficiency, history of glaucoma, EEG abnormalities or seizure disorders, prior brain damage, hepatic or renal impairment. CNS effects: May impair mental or physical abilities, especially during first few days of therapy. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS): Has occurred with agents of this class; is potentially fatal. Signs and symptoms are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, irregular pulse, irregular blood pressure, tachycardia and diaphoresis. Sudden death: Has been reported; predisposing factors may be seizures or previous brain damage. Flare-up of psychotic behavior may precede death. Tardive dyskinesia: Syndrome of potentially irreversible involuntary body and facial movements may develop. Prevalence highest in elderly, especially women. Use smallest effective doses for shortest time possible.

PATIENT CARE CONSIDERATIONS


 

Administration/Storage

  • Administer oral medication with meals or with full glass of milk or water.
  • Oral concentrate should be used in hospital setting only and diluted with water, milk, fruit juice, soup, saline, or lemon-lime carbonated soft drink.
  • Store tablets in tightly covered, light-resistant container.

 

Assessment/Interventions

  • Obtain patient history, including drug history and any known allergies.
  • Monitor blood cell counts with differential, hepatic, and renal function studies, ECG, and ophthalmic status throughout therapy.
  • Monitor for jaundice. If present, notify physician immediately.
  • Monitor for potential signs of pseudoparkinsonism, dystonia, dyskinesia, or akathisia and report to physician.
  • Monitor for evidence of tardive dyskinesia (eg, involuntary dyskinetic movements of tongue, lips, mouth, face or jaw) and report to physician.
  • Assess for signs of orthostatic hypotension; take orthostatic blood pressures and report to physician.
  • Report any significant unexplained temperature increase to physician.
OVERDOSAGE: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  Confusion, tachycardia, visual hallucinations, sedation, hypothermia, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, dilated pupils, seizures, hypotension, coma, hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, hyperactive reflexes, death

 

Patient/Family Education

  • Instruct patient to avoid intake of alcoholic beverages or other CNS depressants.
  • Tell patient to use caution in driving or operating machinery.
  • Advise patient that the medication may take days to weeks before having a full effect.
  • Instruct patient to avoid becoming overheated.
  • Caution patient to avoid exposure to sunlight and to use sunscreen or wear protective clothing to minimize photosensitivity reaction.
  • Teach patient to change position slowly if dizziness occurs.
  • Instruct patient to take sips of water frequently, suck on ice chips or sugarless hard candy or chew sugarless gum if dry mouth occurs.
  • Instruct patient to report the following symptoms to physician: Dizziness, drooling, restlessness, tremors, stiffness, or muscle spasms.
  • Instruct patient to report involuntary face, tongue, mouth, or lip movements to physician.
  • Explain that urine may turn reddish-brown.

Drug Mode of Action ::  

(per-FEN-uh-zeen/am-ee-TRIP-tih-leen)
Triavil 2–10, Triavil 2–25, Triavil 4–10, Triavil 4–25, Triavil 4–50, Etrafon 2–10, Etrafon, Etrafon-A, Etrafon-Forte,  Apo-Peram, Elavil Plus, PMS-Levazine, Proavil
Class: Psychotherapeutic combination

 

Action Amitriptyline blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in CNS. Perphenazine appears to block postsynaptic dopamine receptors.

 

Indications Treatment of moderate-to-severe anxiety or agitation and depressed mood; moderate to severe depression and anxiety associated with chronic physical disease; treatment of patients in whom depression and anxiety cannot be clearly differentiated; treatment of schizophrenia with associated depression.

 

Contraindications Hypersensitivity to phenothiazines; depression of CNS due to drugs (eg, barbiturates, alcohol, narcotics, analgesics, antihistamines); bone marrow depression; hypersensitivity to tricyclic antidepressant. Should not be given concomitantly with MAO inhibitors, suspected or established subcortical brain damage. Not recommended for use during acute recovery phases of myocardial infarction.

 

Route/Dosage

ADULTS: PO Initially, usual dose is 2 to 4 mg perphenazine with 10 to 50 mg amitriptyline tid to qid.

 

Interactions

Alcohol: May result in increased CNS depression and may precipitate extrapyramidal reaction. Amphetamines: May antagonize antipsychotic effects of perphenazine. Anticholinergics: May reduce therapeutic effects of perphenazine and worsen anticholinergic effects. Concomitant administration may worsen schizophrenic symptoms and lead to tardive dyskinesia. Barbiturate anesthetics: Frequency and severity of neuromuscular excitation and hypotension may increase. Barbiturates, carbamazepine, charcoal: May cause decreased amitriptyline blood levels. Cimetidine, fluoxetine, haloperidol, oral contraceptives: May cause increased amitriptyline blood levels. Clonidine: May result in hypertensive crisis. CNS depressants: Depressant effects may be addictive. Guanethidine: Hypotensive action may be inhibited. Lithium: Possible neurotoxicity with perphenazine and may increase effects of amitriptyline. MAO inhibitors: Do NOT use this product with MAO inhibitors as hyperpyretic crisis, severe convulsions and death may result. When switching from MAO inhibitors, wait 14 days and initiate with low doses, increasing dosage gradually until desired response is achieved. Metrizamide: Seizure risk may be increased. Sympathomimetics: Increased pressor effects.

 

Lab Test Interferences May discolor urine pink to red-brown. False positive pregnancy test results may occur, but are less likely to occur with serum test. Increases in protein bound iodine have been reported.

 

Adverse Reactions

CV: Orthostatic hypotension; hypertension; tachycardia; bradycardia; syncope; cardiac arrest; circulatory collapse; arrhythmias; lightheadedness; faintness; dizziness; EKG changes; palpitations. CNS: Sedation; neurologic impairments; extrapyramidal symptoms (eg, pseudoparkinsonism); dystonia; dyskinesia, motor restlessness; oculogyric crisis; opisthotonos; hyperreflexia; tardive dyskinesia; drowsiness; headache; weakness; anxiety; agitation; mania; exacerbation of psychosis; dizziness; tremor; fatigue; slurring of speech; insomnia; vertigo, seizures; abnormalities of CSF proteins; paradoxical excitement or exacerbation of psychotic symptoms; catatonic-like states; paranoid reactions; lethargy; hyperactivity; nocturnal confusion; bizarre dreams. DERM: Photosensitivity reaction; skin pigmentation; dry skin; exfoliative dermatitis; urticarial rash; maculopapular hypersensitivity reaction; seborrhea; eczema; acne; pruritus. EENT: Pigmentary retinopathy; glaucoma; photophobia; rhinitis; pharyngitis; tinnitus; blurred vision; nasal congestion; mydriasis; increased IOP. GI: Dyspepsia; adynamic ileus (may cause death); constipation; nausea; vomiting; anorexia; diarrhea; peculiar taste; dry mouth or throat. GU: Urinary hesitancy or retention; impotence; sexual dysfunction; menstrual irregularities; nocturia. HEMA: Agranulocytosis; eosinophilia; leukopenia; hemolytic anemia; thrombocytopenic purpura. HEPA: Jaundice. META: Hyperglycemia; hypoglycemia. RESP: Laryngospasm; bronchospasm; dyspnea; cough. OTHER: Increases in appetite and weight; polydipsia; breast enlargement; galactorrhea; increased prolactin levels.

 

Precautions

Pregnancy: Safety not established. Lactation: Safety not established. Elderly: More susceptible to adverse effects. Special-risk patients: Use caution in patients with cardiovascular disease or mitral insufficiency, history of glaucoma, EEG abnormalities or seizure disorders, prior brain damage, hepatic or renal impairment. CNS effects: May impair mental or physical abilities, especially during first few days of therapy. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS): Has occurred with agents of this class; is potentially fatal. Signs and symptoms are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, irregular pulse, irregular blood pressure, tachycardia and diaphoresis. Sudden death: Has been reported; predisposing factors may be seizures or previous brain damage. Flare-up of psychotic behavior may precede death. Tardive dyskinesia: Syndrome of potentially irreversible involuntary body and facial movements may develop. Prevalence highest in elderly, especially women. Use smallest effective doses for shortest time possible.

PATIENT CARE CONSIDERATIONS


 

Administration/Storage

  • Administer oral medication with meals or with full glass of milk or water.
  • Oral concentrate should be used in hospital setting only and diluted with water, milk, fruit juice, soup, saline, or lemon-lime carbonated soft drink.
  • Store tablets in tightly covered, light-resistant container.

 

Assessment/Interventions

  • Obtain patient history, including drug history and any known allergies.
  • Monitor blood cell counts with differential, hepatic, and renal function studies, ECG, and ophthalmic status throughout therapy.
  • Monitor for jaundice. If present, notify physician immediately.
  • Monitor for potential signs of pseudoparkinsonism, dystonia, dyskinesia, or akathisia and report to physician.
  • Monitor for evidence of tardive dyskinesia (eg, involuntary dyskinetic movements of tongue, lips, mouth, face or jaw) and report to physician.
  • Assess for signs of orthostatic hypotension; take orthostatic blood pressures and report to physician.
  • Report any significant unexplained temperature increase to physician.
OVERDOSAGE: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  Confusion, tachycardia, visual hallucinations, sedation, hypothermia, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, dilated pupils, seizures, hypotension, coma, hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, hyperactive reflexes, death

 

Patient/Family Education

  • Instruct patient to avoid intake of alcoholic beverages or other CNS depressants.
  • Tell patient to use caution in driving or operating machinery.
  • Advise patient that the medication may take days to weeks before having a full effect.
  • Instruct patient to avoid becoming overheated.
  • Caution patient to avoid exposure to sunlight and to use sunscreen or wear protective clothing to minimize photosensitivity reaction.
  • Teach patient to change position slowly if dizziness occurs.
  • Instruct patient to take sips of water frequently, suck on ice chips or sugarless hard candy or chew sugarless gum if dry mouth occurs.
  • Instruct patient to report the following symptoms to physician: Dizziness, drooling, restlessness, tremors, stiffness, or muscle spasms.
  • Instruct patient to report involuntary face, tongue, mouth, or lip movements to physician.
  • Explain that urine may turn reddish-brown.

Drug Interactions ::

(per-FEN-uh-zeen/am-ee-TRIP-tih-leen)
Triavil 2–10, Triavil 2–25, Triavil 4–10, Triavil 4–25, Triavil 4–50, Etrafon 2–10, Etrafon, Etrafon-A, Etrafon-Forte,  Apo-Peram, Elavil Plus, PMS-Levazine, Proavil
Class: Psychotherapeutic combination

 

Action Amitriptyline blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in CNS. Perphenazine appears to block postsynaptic dopamine receptors.

 

Indications Treatment of moderate-to-severe anxiety or agitation and depressed mood; moderate to severe depression and anxiety associated with chronic physical disease; treatment of patients in whom depression and anxiety cannot be clearly differentiated; treatment of schizophrenia with associated depression.

 

Contraindications Hypersensitivity to phenothiazines; depression of CNS due to drugs (eg, barbiturates, alcohol, narcotics, analgesics, antihistamines); bone marrow depression; hypersensitivity to tricyclic antidepressant. Should not be given concomitantly with MAO inhibitors, suspected or established subcortical brain damage. Not recommended for use during acute recovery phases of myocardial infarction.

 

Route/Dosage

ADULTS: PO Initially, usual dose is 2 to 4 mg perphenazine with 10 to 50 mg amitriptyline tid to qid.

 

Interactions

Alcohol: May result in increased CNS depression and may precipitate extrapyramidal reaction. Amphetamines: May antagonize antipsychotic effects of perphenazine. Anticholinergics: May reduce therapeutic effects of perphenazine and worsen anticholinergic effects. Concomitant administration may worsen schizophrenic symptoms and lead to tardive dyskinesia. Barbiturate anesthetics: Frequency and severity of neuromuscular excitation and hypotension may increase. Barbiturates, carbamazepine, charcoal: May cause decreased amitriptyline blood levels. Cimetidine, fluoxetine, haloperidol, oral contraceptives: May cause increased amitriptyline blood levels. Clonidine: May result in hypertensive crisis. CNS depressants: Depressant effects may be addictive. Guanethidine: Hypotensive action may be inhibited. Lithium: Possible neurotoxicity with perphenazine and may increase effects of amitriptyline. MAO inhibitors: Do NOT use this product with MAO inhibitors as hyperpyretic crisis, severe convulsions and death may result. When switching from MAO inhibitors, wait 14 days and initiate with low doses, increasing dosage gradually until desired response is achieved. Metrizamide: Seizure risk may be increased. Sympathomimetics: Increased pressor effects.

 

Drug Assesment ::

(per-FEN-uh-zeen/am-ee-TRIP-tih-leen)
Triavil 2–10, Triavil 2–25, Triavil 4–10, Triavil 4–25, Triavil 4–50, Etrafon 2–10, Etrafon, Etrafon-A, Etrafon-Forte,  Apo-Peram, Elavil Plus, PMS-Levazine, Proavil
Class: Psychotherapeutic combination

 

Action Amitriptyline blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in CNS. Perphenazine appears to block postsynaptic dopamine receptors.

 

Indications Treatment of moderate-to-severe anxiety or agitation and depressed mood; moderate to severe depression and anxiety associated with chronic physical disease; treatment of patients in whom depression and anxiety cannot be clearly differentiated; treatment of schizophrenia with associated depression.

 

Contraindications Hypersensitivity to phenothiazines; depression of CNS due to drugs (eg, barbiturates, alcohol, narcotics, analgesics, antihistamines); bone marrow depression; hypersensitivity to tricyclic antidepressant. Should not be given concomitantly with MAO inhibitors, suspected or established subcortical brain damage. Not recommended for use during acute recovery phases of myocardial infarction.

 

Route/Dosage

ADULTS: PO Initially, usual dose is 2 to 4 mg perphenazine with 10 to 50 mg amitriptyline tid to qid.

 

Interactions

Alcohol: May result in increased CNS depression and may precipitate extrapyramidal reaction. Amphetamines: May antagonize antipsychotic effects of perphenazine. Anticholinergics: May reduce therapeutic effects of perphenazine and worsen anticholinergic effects. Concomitant administration may worsen schizophrenic symptoms and lead to tardive dyskinesia. Barbiturate anesthetics: Frequency and severity of neuromuscular excitation and hypotension may increase. Barbiturates, carbamazepine, charcoal: May cause decreased amitriptyline blood levels. Cimetidine, fluoxetine, haloperidol, oral contraceptives: May cause increased amitriptyline blood levels. Clonidine: May result in hypertensive crisis. CNS depressants: Depressant effects may be addictive. Guanethidine: Hypotensive action may be inhibited. Lithium: Possible neurotoxicity with perphenazine and may increase effects of amitriptyline. MAO inhibitors: Do NOT use this product with MAO inhibitors as hyperpyretic crisis, severe convulsions and death may result. When switching from MAO inhibitors, wait 14 days and initiate with low doses, increasing dosage gradually until desired response is achieved. Metrizamide: Seizure risk may be increased. Sympathomimetics: Increased pressor effects.

 

Lab Test Interferences May discolor urine pink to red-brown. False positive pregnancy test results may occur, but are less likely to occur with serum test. Increases in protein bound iodine have been reported.

 

Adverse Reactions

CV: Orthostatic hypotension; hypertension; tachycardia; bradycardia; syncope; cardiac arrest; circulatory collapse; arrhythmias; lightheadedness; faintness; dizziness; EKG changes; palpitations. CNS: Sedation; neurologic impairments; extrapyramidal symptoms (eg, pseudoparkinsonism); dystonia; dyskinesia, motor restlessness; oculogyric crisis; opisthotonos; hyperreflexia; tardive dyskinesia; drowsiness; headache; weakness; anxiety; agitation; mania; exacerbation of psychosis; dizziness; tremor; fatigue; slurring of speech; insomnia; vertigo, seizures; abnormalities of CSF proteins; paradoxical excitement or exacerbation of psychotic symptoms; catatonic-like states; paranoid reactions; lethargy; hyperactivity; nocturnal confusion; bizarre dreams. DERM: Photosensitivity reaction; skin pigmentation; dry skin; exfoliative dermatitis; urticarial rash; maculopapular hypersensitivity reaction; seborrhea; eczema; acne; pruritus. EENT: Pigmentary retinopathy; glaucoma; photophobia; rhinitis; pharyngitis; tinnitus; blurred vision; nasal congestion; mydriasis; increased IOP. GI: Dyspepsia; adynamic ileus (may cause death); constipation; nausea; vomiting; anorexia; diarrhea; peculiar taste; dry mouth or throat. GU: Urinary hesitancy or retention; impotence; sexual dysfunction; menstrual irregularities; nocturia. HEMA: Agranulocytosis; eosinophilia; leukopenia; hemolytic anemia; thrombocytopenic purpura. HEPA: Jaundice. META: Hyperglycemia; hypoglycemia. RESP: Laryngospasm; bronchospasm; dyspnea; cough. OTHER: Increases in appetite and weight; polydipsia; breast enlargement; galactorrhea; increased prolactin levels.

 

Precautions

Pregnancy: Safety not established. Lactation: Safety not established. Elderly: More susceptible to adverse effects. Special-risk patients: Use caution in patients with cardiovascular disease or mitral insufficiency, history of glaucoma, EEG abnormalities or seizure disorders, prior brain damage, hepatic or renal impairment. CNS effects: May impair mental or physical abilities, especially during first few days of therapy. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS): Has occurred with agents of this class; is potentially fatal. Signs and symptoms are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, irregular pulse, irregular blood pressure, tachycardia and diaphoresis. Sudden death: Has been reported; predisposing factors may be seizures or previous brain damage. Flare-up of psychotic behavior may precede death. Tardive dyskinesia: Syndrome of potentially irreversible involuntary body and facial movements may develop. Prevalence highest in elderly, especially women. Use smallest effective doses for shortest time possible.

PATIENT CARE CONSIDERATIONS


 

Administration/Storage

  • Administer oral medication with meals or with full glass of milk or water.
  • Oral concentrate should be used in hospital setting only and diluted with water, milk, fruit juice, soup, saline, or lemon-lime carbonated soft drink.
  • Store tablets in tightly covered, light-resistant container.

 

Assessment/Interventions

  • Obtain patient history, including drug history and any known allergies.
  • Monitor blood cell counts with differential, hepatic, and renal function studies, ECG, and ophthalmic status throughout therapy.
  • Monitor for jaundice. If present, notify physician immediately.
  • Monitor for potential signs of pseudoparkinsonism, dystonia, dyskinesia, or akathisia and report to physician.
  • Monitor for evidence of tardive dyskinesia (eg, involuntary dyskinetic movements of tongue, lips, mouth, face or jaw) and report to physician.
  • Assess for signs of orthostatic hypotension; take orthostatic blood pressures and report to physician.
  • Report any significant unexplained temperature increase to physician.
OVERDOSAGE: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  Confusion, tachycardia, visual hallucinations, sedation, hypothermia, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, dilated pupils, seizures, hypotension, coma, hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, hyperactive reflexes, death

 

Patient/Family Education

  • Instruct patient to avoid intake of alcoholic beverages or other CNS depressants.
  • Tell patient to use caution in driving or operating machinery.
  • Advise patient that the medication may take days to weeks before having a full effect.
  • Instruct patient to avoid becoming overheated.
  • Caution patient to avoid exposure to sunlight and to use sunscreen or wear protective clothing to minimize photosensitivity reaction.
  • Teach patient to change position slowly if dizziness occurs.
  • Instruct patient to take sips of water frequently, suck on ice chips or sugarless hard candy or chew sugarless gum if dry mouth occurs.
  • Instruct patient to report the following symptoms to physician: Dizziness, drooling, restlessness, tremors, stiffness, or muscle spasms.
  • Instruct patient to report involuntary face, tongue, mouth, or lip movements to physician.
  • Explain that urine may turn reddish-brown.

Drug Storage/Management ::

(per-FEN-uh-zeen/am-ee-TRIP-tih-leen)
Triavil 2–10, Triavil 2–25, Triavil 4–10, Triavil 4–25, Triavil 4–50, Etrafon 2–10, Etrafon, Etrafon-A, Etrafon-Forte,  Apo-Peram, Elavil Plus, PMS-Levazine, Proavil
Class: Psychotherapeutic combination

 

Action Amitriptyline blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in CNS. Perphenazine appears to block postsynaptic dopamine receptors.

 

Indications Treatment of moderate-to-severe anxiety or agitation and depressed mood; moderate to severe depression and anxiety associated with chronic physical disease; treatment of patients in whom depression and anxiety cannot be clearly differentiated; treatment of schizophrenia with associated depression.

 

Contraindications Hypersensitivity to phenothiazines; depression of CNS due to drugs (eg, barbiturates, alcohol, narcotics, analgesics, antihistamines); bone marrow depression; hypersensitivity to tricyclic antidepressant. Should not be given concomitantly with MAO inhibitors, suspected or established subcortical brain damage. Not recommended for use during acute recovery phases of myocardial infarction.

 

Route/Dosage

ADULTS: PO Initially, usual dose is 2 to 4 mg perphenazine with 10 to 50 mg amitriptyline tid to qid.

 

Interactions

Alcohol: May result in increased CNS depression and may precipitate extrapyramidal reaction. Amphetamines: May antagonize antipsychotic effects of perphenazine. Anticholinergics: May reduce therapeutic effects of perphenazine and worsen anticholinergic effects. Concomitant administration may worsen schizophrenic symptoms and lead to tardive dyskinesia. Barbiturate anesthetics: Frequency and severity of neuromuscular excitation and hypotension may increase. Barbiturates, carbamazepine, charcoal: May cause decreased amitriptyline blood levels. Cimetidine, fluoxetine, haloperidol, oral contraceptives: May cause increased amitriptyline blood levels. Clonidine: May result in hypertensive crisis. CNS depressants: Depressant effects may be addictive. Guanethidine: Hypotensive action may be inhibited. Lithium: Possible neurotoxicity with perphenazine and may increase effects of amitriptyline. MAO inhibitors: Do NOT use this product with MAO inhibitors as hyperpyretic crisis, severe convulsions and death may result. When switching from MAO inhibitors, wait 14 days and initiate with low doses, increasing dosage gradually until desired response is achieved. Metrizamide: Seizure risk may be increased. Sympathomimetics: Increased pressor effects.

 

Lab Test Interferences May discolor urine pink to red-brown. False positive pregnancy test results may occur, but are less likely to occur with serum test. Increases in protein bound iodine have been reported.

 

Adverse Reactions

CV: Orthostatic hypotension; hypertension; tachycardia; bradycardia; syncope; cardiac arrest; circulatory collapse; arrhythmias; lightheadedness; faintness; dizziness; EKG changes; palpitations. CNS: Sedation; neurologic impairments; extrapyramidal symptoms (eg, pseudoparkinsonism); dystonia; dyskinesia, motor restlessness; oculogyric crisis; opisthotonos; hyperreflexia; tardive dyskinesia; drowsiness; headache; weakness; anxiety; agitation; mania; exacerbation of psychosis; dizziness; tremor; fatigue; slurring of speech; insomnia; vertigo, seizures; abnormalities of CSF proteins; paradoxical excitement or exacerbation of psychotic symptoms; catatonic-like states; paranoid reactions; lethargy; hyperactivity; nocturnal confusion; bizarre dreams. DERM: Photosensitivity reaction; skin pigmentation; dry skin; exfoliative dermatitis; urticarial rash; maculopapular hypersensitivity reaction; seborrhea; eczema; acne; pruritus. EENT: Pigmentary retinopathy; glaucoma; photophobia; rhinitis; pharyngitis; tinnitus; blurred vision; nasal congestion; mydriasis; increased IOP. GI: Dyspepsia; adynamic ileus (may cause death); constipation; nausea; vomiting; anorexia; diarrhea; peculiar taste; dry mouth or throat. GU: Urinary hesitancy or retention; impotence; sexual dysfunction; menstrual irregularities; nocturia. HEMA: Agranulocytosis; eosinophilia; leukopenia; hemolytic anemia; thrombocytopenic purpura. HEPA: Jaundice. META: Hyperglycemia; hypoglycemia. RESP: Laryngospasm; bronchospasm; dyspnea; cough. OTHER: Increases in appetite and weight; polydipsia; breast enlargement; galactorrhea; increased prolactin levels.

 

Precautions

Pregnancy: Safety not established. Lactation: Safety not established. Elderly: More susceptible to adverse effects. Special-risk patients: Use caution in patients with cardiovascular disease or mitral insufficiency, history of glaucoma, EEG abnormalities or seizure disorders, prior brain damage, hepatic or renal impairment. CNS effects: May impair mental or physical abilities, especially during first few days of therapy. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS): Has occurred with agents of this class; is potentially fatal. Signs and symptoms are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, irregular pulse, irregular blood pressure, tachycardia and diaphoresis. Sudden death: Has been reported; predisposing factors may be seizures or previous brain damage. Flare-up of psychotic behavior may precede death. Tardive dyskinesia: Syndrome of potentially irreversible involuntary body and facial movements may develop. Prevalence highest in elderly, especially women. Use smallest effective doses for shortest time possible.

PATIENT CARE CONSIDERATIONS


 

Administration/Storage

  • Administer oral medication with meals or with full glass of milk or water.
  • Oral concentrate should be used in hospital setting only and diluted with water, milk, fruit juice, soup, saline, or lemon-lime carbonated soft drink.
  • Store tablets in tightly covered, light-resistant container.

 

Assessment/Interventions

  • Obtain patient history, including drug history and any known allergies.
  • Monitor blood cell counts with differential, hepatic, and renal function studies, ECG, and ophthalmic status throughout therapy.
  • Monitor for jaundice. If present, notify physician immediately.
  • Monitor for potential signs of pseudoparkinsonism, dystonia, dyskinesia, or akathisia and report to physician.
  • Monitor for evidence of tardive dyskinesia (eg, involuntary dyskinetic movements of tongue, lips, mouth, face or jaw) and report to physician.
  • Assess for signs of orthostatic hypotension; take orthostatic blood pressures and report to physician.
  • Report any significant unexplained temperature increase to physician.
OVERDOSAGE: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  Confusion, tachycardia, visual hallucinations, sedation, hypothermia, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, dilated pupils, seizures, hypotension, coma, hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, hyperactive reflexes, death

 

Patient/Family Education

  • Instruct patient to avoid intake of alcoholic beverages or other CNS depressants.
  • Tell patient to use caution in driving or operating machinery.
  • Advise patient that the medication may take days to weeks before having a full effect.
  • Instruct patient to avoid becoming overheated.
  • Caution patient to avoid exposure to sunlight and to use sunscreen or wear protective clothing to minimize photosensitivity reaction.
  • Teach patient to change position slowly if dizziness occurs.
  • Instruct patient to take sips of water frequently, suck on ice chips or sugarless hard candy or chew sugarless gum if dry mouth occurs.
  • Instruct patient to report the following symptoms to physician: Dizziness, drooling, restlessness, tremors, stiffness, or muscle spasms.
  • Instruct patient to report involuntary face, tongue, mouth, or lip movements to physician.
  • Explain that urine may turn reddish-brown.

Drug Notes ::

(per-FEN-uh-zeen/am-ee-TRIP-tih-leen)
Triavil 2–10, Triavil 2–25, Triavil 4–10, Triavil 4–25, Triavil 4–50, Etrafon 2–10, Etrafon, Etrafon-A, Etrafon-Forte,  Apo-Peram, Elavil Plus, PMS-Levazine, Proavil
Class: Psychotherapeutic combination

 

Action Amitriptyline blocks reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine in CNS. Perphenazine appears to block postsynaptic dopamine receptors.

 

Indications Treatment of moderate-to-severe anxiety or agitation and depressed mood; moderate to severe depression and anxiety associated with chronic physical disease; treatment of patients in whom depression and anxiety cannot be clearly differentiated; treatment of schizophrenia with associated depression.

 

Contraindications Hypersensitivity to phenothiazines; depression of CNS due to drugs (eg, barbiturates, alcohol, narcotics, analgesics, antihistamines); bone marrow depression; hypersensitivity to tricyclic antidepressant. Should not be given concomitantly with MAO inhibitors, suspected or established subcortical brain damage. Not recommended for use during acute recovery phases of myocardial infarction.

 

Route/Dosage

ADULTS: PO Initially, usual dose is 2 to 4 mg perphenazine with 10 to 50 mg amitriptyline tid to qid.

 

Interactions

Alcohol: May result in increased CNS depression and may precipitate extrapyramidal reaction. Amphetamines: May antagonize antipsychotic effects of perphenazine. Anticholinergics: May reduce therapeutic effects of perphenazine and worsen anticholinergic effects. Concomitant administration may worsen schizophrenic symptoms and lead to tardive dyskinesia. Barbiturate anesthetics: Frequency and severity of neuromuscular excitation and hypotension may increase. Barbiturates, carbamazepine, charcoal: May cause decreased amitriptyline blood levels. Cimetidine, fluoxetine, haloperidol, oral contraceptives: May cause increased amitriptyline blood levels. Clonidine: May result in hypertensive crisis. CNS depressants: Depressant effects may be addictive. Guanethidine: Hypotensive action may be inhibited. Lithium: Possible neurotoxicity with perphenazine and may increase effects of amitriptyline. MAO inhibitors: Do NOT use this product with MAO inhibitors as hyperpyretic crisis, severe convulsions and death may result. When switching from MAO inhibitors, wait 14 days and initiate with low doses, increasing dosage gradually until desired response is achieved. Metrizamide: Seizure risk may be increased. Sympathomimetics: Increased pressor effects.

 

Lab Test Interferences May discolor urine pink to red-brown. False positive pregnancy test results may occur, but are less likely to occur with serum test. Increases in protein bound iodine have been reported.

 

Adverse Reactions

CV: Orthostatic hypotension; hypertension; tachycardia; bradycardia; syncope; cardiac arrest; circulatory collapse; arrhythmias; lightheadedness; faintness; dizziness; EKG changes; palpitations. CNS: Sedation; neurologic impairments; extrapyramidal symptoms (eg, pseudoparkinsonism); dystonia; dyskinesia, motor restlessness; oculogyric crisis; opisthotonos; hyperreflexia; tardive dyskinesia; drowsiness; headache; weakness; anxiety; agitation; mania; exacerbation of psychosis; dizziness; tremor; fatigue; slurring of speech; insomnia; vertigo, seizures; abnormalities of CSF proteins; paradoxical excitement or exacerbation of psychotic symptoms; catatonic-like states; paranoid reactions; lethargy; hyperactivity; nocturnal confusion; bizarre dreams. DERM: Photosensitivity reaction; skin pigmentation; dry skin; exfoliative dermatitis; urticarial rash; maculopapular hypersensitivity reaction; seborrhea; eczema; acne; pruritus. EENT: Pigmentary retinopathy; glaucoma; photophobia; rhinitis; pharyngitis; tinnitus; blurred vision; nasal congestion; mydriasis; increased IOP. GI: Dyspepsia; adynamic ileus (may cause death); constipation; nausea; vomiting; anorexia; diarrhea; peculiar taste; dry mouth or throat. GU: Urinary hesitancy or retention; impotence; sexual dysfunction; menstrual irregularities; nocturia. HEMA: Agranulocytosis; eosinophilia; leukopenia; hemolytic anemia; thrombocytopenic purpura. HEPA: Jaundice. META: Hyperglycemia; hypoglycemia. RESP: Laryngospasm; bronchospasm; dyspnea; cough. OTHER: Increases in appetite and weight; polydipsia; breast enlargement; galactorrhea; increased prolactin levels.

 

Precautions

Pregnancy: Safety not established. Lactation: Safety not established. Elderly: More susceptible to adverse effects. Special-risk patients: Use caution in patients with cardiovascular disease or mitral insufficiency, history of glaucoma, EEG abnormalities or seizure disorders, prior brain damage, hepatic or renal impairment. CNS effects: May impair mental or physical abilities, especially during first few days of therapy. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS): Has occurred with agents of this class; is potentially fatal. Signs and symptoms are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status, irregular pulse, irregular blood pressure, tachycardia and diaphoresis. Sudden death: Has been reported; predisposing factors may be seizures or previous brain damage. Flare-up of psychotic behavior may precede death. Tardive dyskinesia: Syndrome of potentially irreversible involuntary body and facial movements may develop. Prevalence highest in elderly, especially women. Use smallest effective doses for shortest time possible.

PATIENT CARE CONSIDERATIONS


 

Administration/Storage

  • Administer oral medication with meals or with full glass of milk or water.
  • Oral concentrate should be used in hospital setting only and diluted with water, milk, fruit juice, soup, saline, or lemon-lime carbonated soft drink.
  • Store tablets in tightly covered, light-resistant container.

 

Assessment/Interventions

  • Obtain patient history, including drug history and any known allergies.
  • Monitor blood cell counts with differential, hepatic, and renal function studies, ECG, and ophthalmic status throughout therapy.
  • Monitor for jaundice. If present, notify physician immediately.
  • Monitor for potential signs of pseudoparkinsonism, dystonia, dyskinesia, or akathisia and report to physician.
  • Monitor for evidence of tardive dyskinesia (eg, involuntary dyskinetic movements of tongue, lips, mouth, face or jaw) and report to physician.
  • Assess for signs of orthostatic hypotension; take orthostatic blood pressures and report to physician.
  • Report any significant unexplained temperature increase to physician.
OVERDOSAGE: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  Confusion, tachycardia, visual hallucinations, sedation, hypothermia, arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, dilated pupils, seizures, hypotension, coma, hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, hyperactive reflexes, death

 

Patient/Family Education

  • Instruct patient to avoid intake of alcoholic beverages or other CNS depressants.
  • Tell patient to use caution in driving or operating machinery.
  • Advise patient that the medication may take days to weeks before having a full effect.
  • Instruct patient to avoid becoming overheated.
  • Caution patient to avoid exposure to sunlight and to use sunscreen or wear protective clothing to minimize photosensitivity reaction.
  • Teach patient to change position slowly if dizziness occurs.
  • Instruct patient to take sips of water frequently, suck on ice chips or sugarless hard candy or chew sugarless gum if dry mouth occurs.
  • Instruct patient to report the following symptoms to physician: Dizziness, drooling, restlessness, tremors, stiffness, or muscle spasms.
  • Instruct patient to report involuntary face, tongue, mouth, or lip movements to physician.
  • Explain that urine may turn reddish-brown.

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