Details About Generic Salt ::  Sodium

Main Medicine Class:: Urinary tract product,alkalinizer; electrolyte; antacid   

(SO-dee-uhm by-CAR-boe-nate)
Bell/ans, Neut, Sodium Bicarbonate
Class: Urinary tract product/alkalinizer; electrolyte; antacid

 

Drugs Class ::

 Action Increases plasma bicarbonate; buffers excess hydrogen ion concentrations; raises blood pH; reverses metabolic acidosis.

Indications for Drugs ::

 Indications Treatment of metabolic acidosis; promotion of gastric, systemic and urinary alkalinization; replacement therapy in severe diarrhea; used to reduce incidence of chemical phlebitis (used as neutralizing additive solution).

Drug Dose ::

 Route/Dosage

ADULTS & CHILDREN > 2 YR: IV Administration performed in concentrations ranging from 1.5% (isotonic) to 8.4% depending on clinical condition and requirements of patient. SC After dilution to isotonicity (1.5%). The dose depends on the clinical condition and requirements of the patient (including age and weight). PO 325 mg to 2 g 1 to 4 times daily (patients < 60 yr, maximum dose 16 g/day; patients > 60 yr maximum dose 8 g/day). INFANTS £ 2 YR: IV 4.2% solution at rate £ 8 mEq/kg/day.

Contraindication ::

 Contraindications Loss of chloride from vomiting or continuous GI suction when patient is receiving diuretics known to produce hypochloremic alkalosis; metabolic and respiratory alkalosis; hypocalcemia in which alkalosis may produce tetany, hypertension, convulsions or CHF; when administration of sodium could be clinically detrimental.

Drug Precautions ::

 Precautions

Pregnancy: Category C. Lactation: Undetermined. Neonates and children < 2 yr: Administration of ³ 10 ml/min of hypertonic sodium bicarbonate may produce hypernatremia, decreased CSF pressure and possible intracranial hemorrhage. Special risk patients: Use drug with caution in edematous sodium-retaining states, CHF, liver cirrhosis, toxemia of pregnancy or renal impairment. Sodium content: May be significant, especially in patients with hypertension or CHF or in patients on low-sodium diets.

PATIENT CARE CONSIDERATIONS


Drug Side Effects ::

 Adverse Reactions

CV: Exacerbation of CHF. GI: Rebound hyperacidity; milk-alkali syndrome. META: Hypernatremia; alkalosis. OTHER: Extravasation with cellulitis, tissue necrosis, ulceration and sloughing; local pain; venous irritation; tetany; edema.

Drug Mode of Action ::  

 Action Increases plasma bicarbonate; buffers excess hydrogen ion concentrations; raises blood pH; reverses metabolic acidosis.

Drug Interactions ::

 Interactions

Amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, ephedrine, flecainide, mecamylamine, methamphetamine, pseudoephedrine, quinidine: Sodium bicarbonate can decrease elimination of these drugs, thus increasing their therapeutic effects. Chlorpropamide, lithium, methotrexate, salicylates, tetracyclines: Sodium bicarbonate can increase elimination of these drugs, thus decreasing their therapeutic effect. Ketoconazole: PO sodium bicarbonate may decrease the dissolution of ketoconazole in the GI tract, reducing the effectiveness. INCOMPATIBILITIES: Do not mix with IV solutions containing catecholamines, such as dobutamine, dopamine and norepinephrine.

Drug Assesment ::

 Assessment/Interventions

  • Obtain patient history, including drug history and any known allergies.
  • Evaluate pH and electrolytes with preadministration values. If there is evidence of alkalosis, notify physician.
  • Assess baseline BP and respiratory rate and rhythm.
  • Assess serum pH, PaO2, PacO2 and serum electrolytes frequently during therapy. Inform physician of results.
  • Test urine to determine pH.
  • If patient has edematous tendency, notify physician.
  • If patient exhibits shortness of breath and hyperpnea, notify physician.
  • If patient is vomiting, withhold medication and notify physician.
  • Notify physician if relief is not obtained or if patient demonstrates any symptoms that suggest bleeding, such as black tarry stools or coffee ground emesis.
OVERDOSAGE: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  Alkalosis, hyperirritability, tetany, nausea, vomiting

Drug Storage/Management ::

 Administration/Storage

  • For IV solution preparation, use Sterile Water for Injection, Sodium Chloride Injection, 5% Dextrose or other standard electrolyte solutions as diluent.
  • With chewable tablets instruct patient to chew thoroughly before swallowing and then to drink a glass of water.
  • Do not administer other oral drugs within 1 to 2 hr of oral sodium bicarbonate (antacid) administration.

Drug Notes ::

 Patient/Family Education

  • Instruct patient not to take medication with milk because renali calculi can develop.
  • Explain need to avoid otc medications containing sodium bicarbonate, such as Alka-Seltzer. Excessive use of sodium bicarbonate can result in increase acid secretion or systemic alkalosis.
  • Instruct patient not to use maximum dose of antacids for more than 2 wk except under supervision of physician.
  • Advise patient not to take sodium bicarbonate on routine or long-term basis. Tell patient to notify physician if symptoms of gastric distress continue.
  • Caution patient to report these symptoms to physician immediately: nausea, vomiting and anorexia.

Disclaimer ::

The Information available on this site is for only Informational Purpose , before any use of this information please consult your Doctor .Price of the drugs indicated above may not match to real price due to many possible reasons may , including local taxes etc.. These are only approximate indicative prices of the drug.

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