Details About Overdose or Poisoning Generic Salt ::  Nicotinamide, Niacinamide

Nicotinamide (Niacinamide)

    

Drug Pharmacology ::

I. Pharmacology. Nicotinamide (niacinamide, vitamin B3),one of the B vitamins, is required for the functioning of the coenzymesnicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adeninedinucleotide phosphate (NADP). NAD and NADP are responsible for energytransfer reactions. Niacin deficiency, which results in pellagra, canbe corrected with nicotinamide.

Drug Indications ::

Indications. Nicotinamideis used to prevent the neurologic and endocrinologic toxicityassociated with the ingestion of Vacor (PNU), a rodenticide that isbelieved to act by antagonizing nicotinamide (see Vacor [PNU]). Thebest results are achieved when nicotinamide therapy is institutedwithin 3 hours of ingestion. It may also be effective for treatment ofVacor analogs such as alloxan and streptozocin.

Drug Contra-Indications ::

III. Contraindications. No known contraindications.

Drug Adverse Effects ::

IV. Adverse effects

   

Headache and dizziness.

Hyperglycemia.

Hepatotoxicity (reported after chronic use with daily dose 3 g).

Use in pregnancy. No assigned FDA category. This does not preclude its acute, short-term use in a seriously symptomatic patient (see Table III–1).

Drug Lab Interactions ::

Drug or laboratory interactions. No known interactions.

Drug Dose Management ::

Dosage and method of administration (adults and children). Note:The parenteral preparation is no longer available in the United States.The oral form may be substituted but is of unknown efficacy.

   

Give500 mg IV initially, followed by 100–200 mg IV every 4 hours for 48hours. Then give 100 mg orally 3–5 times daily for 2 weeks. If clinicaldeterioration from the Vacor progresses during initial therapy withnicotinamide, change the dosing interval to every 2 hours. The maximumsuggested daily dose is 3 g.

Note: Nicotinic acid (niacin) is not a substitute for nicotinamide in the treatment of Vacor ingestions.

Drug Chemical Formulations ::

Formulations

   

Parenteral. Niacinamide, 100 mg/mL (not available in the United States).

Oral. Niacinamide, 100- and 500-mg tablets, is available without a prescription. The suggested minimum stocking level to treat a 70-kg adult for the first 24 hours is 3 g.

Disclaimer ::

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