Ayurvedic and Modern methods of Sneha Paka

  • Gen.Method of Sneha Paka
  • Oil / Ghee
  •  Mild Heat
  • Murchana
  • Addition of kalka
  • Addition of Kwatha / Milk etc..
  • Ama Paka ¬ ¯ Moderate Heat
  • Till liquid portion evaporates
  • Jaipur Parampara
  • Oil / Ghee
  • Murchana
  • Barjana (fried) of kalka
  • Addition of Kwatha / Milk etc..
  • Ama Paka ¬ ¯ Moderate Heat
  • Till liquid portion evaporates
  •  Madhya paka
  • Sneha paka
  • Banaras parampara
  • Oil / Ghee
  • Murchana done with wet mango leaf
  • Addition of kalka
  • +
  • Addition of Kwatha / Milk etc..
  • Ama Paka ¬ ¯ Moderate Heat
  • Till liquid portion evaporates
  •  Madhya paka
  • Sneha paka

Duration of sneha Paka

  • The preparation of medicated oils and Ghritas should not be completed within a day, as longer the duration of preparation more absorption of fat soluble constituents of the drugs (ingredients) takes place.
  • Thus, the potency of the Taila / Ghrita is expected to be enhanced.
  • The duration of Paka period depends on the nature of the liquid substances added to sneha.
  • For Kwatha, Aranala and Takra – 5 days ;
  • Swarasa – 3 days,
  • Dugdha – 2 days &
  • Mamsarasa -1 day.
Till liquid portion evaporates

Ayurvedic and Modern methods of Sneha Paka

Precautions Sneha paka (Before)
    • * The following precautions to be taken –
    • * a) Before processing


  • * Snehas should be pure, clear and without
  • slurry.
  • * In case of Ghrita preferably old ghee should
  • be taken (Purana ghrita).
  • * Fresh oil to be taken.
  • Precautions (During)
  • a) During the process –
  • * Maintain the intensity of fire throughout the operation in order to get desirable grade of temperature.
  • *  Gentle boiling of sneha is to be maintained continuously.
  • *  The mixture is stirred constantly and carefully to ensure that the kalka does not stick to the bottom of the vessel resulting into carbonization.
  • *  Care should be taken to determine the proper stages of sneha paka.


Precautions Sneha paka (After)
  • * After Sneha paka process:
  • * 1. In order to obtain optimum quality of oil, the Kalka should be squeezed at hot stage.
  • * 2. Preserving containers should be free from moisture.
  • * 3. perfuming drugs should be added gently with stirring when the oil is leuke warm.
  • Features of Completed Sneha
  • At the time of completion following features seen –
  • A) Oil / Ghee –
  •  Oil should yield good amount of foam (oil), in ghee foam should disappears.
  •  The oil/ghee should emerge color, smell, taste of the drug.
  •  Oil/ghee should be free from water.
  •  When prepared oil/ghee dropped on fire it should not produce any crackling sound.
  • A) Kalka –
  • Kalka contains traces of water, fails to form varti and sticks to fingers at Mridu paka stage.
  •   In Madhyama paka total absence of water is
  • observed, forms soft, smooth varti without sticking to fingers.
  •  Kalka becomes hard, sandy and disintegrates while preparing varti in Kharapaka.

Stages of Sneha paka

  • S.No. Name of Pakas
  • ———————————————————–
  • 1. Ama
  • 2. Mridu or Manda
  • 3. Madhya or Chikkana
  • 4. Khara or Khara chikkana
  • 5. Dagdha
  • 6. Vishoshi

Ama Paka

  • Ama Paka- This is the first stage of Snehapaka, the word Ama indicates reduced/decreased digestion capacity of Sneha.
  • Ama means the medicated Sneha has not sufficiently assimilated the medicinal properties due to short of heat treatment, water can be seen in both Sneha and as well as in paste; the fluids are at heterogeneous stage.

Mridu Paka

  • Mridu Paka – The second stage of sneha paka is called Mridu Paka. Where the paste is sticky on touch due to the presence of traces of water, and produces cracking sound when kept on fire.
  • The Sneha collected at this stage is likely to contain less amount of fat- soluble active principles.

Madhya Paka


  • Madhya Paka – Third stage of sneha paka is called Madhyama Paka. Where the paste still remains soft and not sticky due to the complete disappearance of water- content, Kalka can be made into varti between the fingers and the oil is also free from water content. The oil collected at this stage is likely to be rich in fat soluble contents.

Khara Paka

  • * Khara Paka – The fourth stage of sneha paka is called Khara Paka. Which comes after the stage of Madhyama paka.
  • * In this stage, the paste becomes hard, rough due to excess of heating. The oil collected at this stage is meant for external application.

Dagdha Paka

    • Dagdha Paka – This is the last stage of Sneha paka. Where probably the contents of the Sneha are burnt leaving it of no use for therapeutic purpose. In this paka, the excessive heat treatment leads to loss in the concentration of Tochopherols, Sesamin and Sesamolin (anti-oxidants) and levels of Ca. etc.. The observation of Pharmaceutical study suggests that one should be very careful regarding identification of particular stage of paka, because the time between different stages of paka is quite short, especially when the amount of preparation is small.
    • Clinical uses of stages


  • Name of Pakas Cha. S.Su.Sam.
  • Ama Not mentioned Not mentioned
  • Mridu/ Manda Nasya Oral
  • Madhya/Chikkana Oral and enemata Nasya/massage
  • Khara/ Khara chikkana Massage Enemata otic drops
  • Dgdha Not mentioned Not mentioned.
  • Vishoshi Not mentioned Not mentioned
  • Avartana (Repeatition)
  • Oil / Ghee
  •  Mild Heat



  • Addition of kalka
  • ¯
  • Addition of Kwatha / Milk etc..
  • Ama Paka ¬ ¯ Moderate Heat
  • Till liquid portion evaporates
  • 1. Mridu paka Sapta Avartita (7 times)
  • 2.Madhyam paka Þ Dasha Avartita(10 times)
  • 3.Khara paka Chaturdasha Avartita (14)
  • Ashtavimsha Avartita (28)
  • Shatavartita Avartita (100)
  • Shatamekottara Avartita (101)
  • Sahasra Avartita (1000 times)


    • It is interesting to note that in the ancient texts ( Brihat trayee & Laghu trayee) there were no suggestions about the preliminary treatment of Murchana, which however seems to have introduced some times later (Bhaishajya Ratnavali). In view of this in modern practice there is a difference of opinion amongst the Ayurvedic exponents whether murchana is necessity or not for preparing medicated Oil/Ghrita.
    • * The previous workers H.C. Tiwari et al, suggesting that murchana is not necessary for preparing medicated oils/Gritas but,
    • * Rao K.S. et al. of the opinion that murchana process for oils is beneficial for the human health. This process helps in decreasing the percentage of composition of saturated fatty acids and at the same time it found increased in the percentage composition of unsaturated fatty acids.
    • Modern method of sneha paka


  • Some authors mentioned the methods of preparation of Ayurvedic medicated oils in the light of modern technology. Ex. Gandhaka taila. The formula Gandhaka taila prepared by using Tinctures of Z. Officinale, Cinnamum, 90% alcohal and Sulphuric acid.



  • On observation it is found that such type of preparations are seems to be highly acidic and corrosive in nature. Hence, it is suggested to follow the classical procedure for the preparation of Sneha by keeping the recent consequences in the mind.
  • Recent Consequences
  • * Oil/Grita used as base ?
  • * Keeping properties in mind Tila Taila & cow’s Ghee considered as best.
  • * Kalka should be soft & bolus ®varti test fails.
  • * Should not fry kalka in Sneha preparation as in Rajasthan.
  • * Sneha kashaya method should adapted.
  • * Kwatha principles should apply while prep. of Sneha Kashaya.
  • * Use of aqueous media is for Samyak Paka.
  • * Cook on mild temp.
  • * Must careful for stage detection.


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