SMRITIHANI Loss of Memory


Definition of Memory :-

Different Acarayas have given following definitions of memory, Acaraya Patanjali has mentioned in Yoga Sutra- 1/11 that unforget fullness at the internal impression in the mind of the past or movement of parts is called memory.

Loss of Memory

  • According to Caraka Smriti is nothing but remembrance of things already seen (Arishta) or heard (Srsuta) or experienced (Ca.Sha-1/149) While Vaisheshika Darshana Sutra-1/26 explained that memory is the product of the trades or internal impression of produced by the unison of experience of souland mind.
  • Acaraya Caraka has described eight causes of reproduction memory in Ca.Sha -1/148 are as follows.

    • 1. Nimitta Grahana (From relation of cause & its effect )
    • 2. Rupa Grahana (From intimately related thing)
    • 3. Sadrashya (From similarity)
    • 4. Savipparwya(From contract)
    • 5. Satvaanubandra (By attention of mind)
    • 6. Abhyasa (Repetition)
    • 7. Jnana yaga (Divine knowledge)
    • 8. Punah shruta (Repeating hearing)
  • When the retention of true knowledge “Tatvajana” is destroyed, that is called the derangement of memory “Smrtihani” In this condition Prajna is clouded with the Rajas and Moha because the memorable subjects are dependent on the Smriti.
  • Misconception by the intellect “Buddhi” is to be understood as Prajnparadha because it becomes under the ken of mind. When the Mana is affected to it then the Vacika and Kayika Karmas are found in the same state.
  • Caraka explained that in old age there is decrease in Grahana, Dharana, Smarana, Vachana and Vijnana.
  • While there is derangement of specifically Dosas like as in Vatta specifically Pranvayu, Vyanvayu , in Pitta specifically Sadhaka Pitta, Alochak Pitta and in Kapha specifically Tarpaka Kapha.
  • With Buddhi are mainly involved in impairment of Smriti. Warburton (1967) assessed the patients autobiographical memory, and she too found that a significant impairment in Parkinson’s disease group.
  • One of the most consistent findings in patient with advanced Parkinson’s disease is the presence of cognitive impairment.
  • The severity of cognitive impairment has been found to be significantly related to both the duration of the disease and the stage of the illness (Hietanen & Teravainer 1988) Subtle cognitive change however, have been reported in early stage of the disorder, (Lees and Smith 1983) In patient with unilateral symptom these cognitive deficits are related to the hemisphere involved (i.e. more verbal impairment in those with predominately left hemisphere involvement (Starkstein et al 1987).
  • Lee and Smith (1983) and Tylor et al (1986) have also reported deficient in frontal lobe tasks (example – Wisconsin card sorting test and verbal fluency). The hypothesis of Roger et al (1987) suggests that in Parkinson’s disease patient with major depression have more frontal to be dysfunction than non-depressed Parkinson’s patient.
  • This dysfunction may be secondary to pathologic changes in the frontal cortex or more likely to pathological changes in the dopaminergic cell bodies that innervate the frontal cortex.
  • These dopaminergic cell bodies are located in the ventral tegmental area and send projection to subcortical limbic structure i.e. (nucleus accumbens and the amygdala) as well as to limbic related cortical region (orbitofrontal cortex and cingulate gyrus).
  • Depletion of dopaminergic cell bodies, in the VTA has been consistently reported in Parkinson’s disease (Javoy- Agid & Agid 1980) moreover while pathological changes in the Substantia nigra pars compacta have been implicated in the pathogenesis of motor system (eg. rigidity and akinesia).
  • It was suggested that cognitive and emotional disorder in Parkinson’s patient may be secondary to pathological change in the VTA (ventral tegmental area) {Javoy – Agid & Agid 1980} In support of this Torack & Morris (1988) have recently found a SANJAY mark loss of pigmented neuron in the VTA in patient with parkinsonism progressive dementia and depression.


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