All about Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram-Positive STAPHYLOCOCCAL with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms

Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections in eye caused by STAPHYLOCOCCAL



  • . Streptococcus pneumoniae or diplococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of pneumonia. These Gram +ve cocci grow in chains.
  • Some conditions that predispose to pneumococcal infections are overcrowding, viral respiratory infec­tions, air pollution, smoking, COPD, multiple myeloma, extremes of ages, HIV infection, glucocorticoid treat ment, hepatic and renal insufficiency.
  • Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae are acute sinusitis, pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, empyema, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, peritonitis, cellulitis, brain abscess.
  • The antibiotics effective against pneumococcal infec tions are amoxycillin, amoxycillin + c1avulanic acid, ceftriaxone, quinolone, penicillin, cefotaxime, imipenem, vancomycin.



  • Staphylococcus aureus is a virulent pathogen, Gram positive cocci, which appear as grape-like clusters on Gram’s stain.
  • The other staphylococci are less virulent called co agulase-negative staphylococci.

The diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus are:

Skin and soft tissue infections
Staphylococcus Skin and soft tissue infections

Staphylococcus  Skin and soft tissue infections

  • · Folliculitis
  • · Furuncle
  • · Cellulitis
  • · Impetigo
  • · Surgical wound infections.


Musculo skeletal infections
Staphylococcus Musculo skeletal infections legs


Musculo skeletal infections 2
Staphylococcus Musculo skeletal infections in bone


Staphylococcus Musculo skeletal infections

  • · Septic arthritis
  • · Osteomyelitis.
Respiratory tract infections 1
Staphylococcus Respiratory tract infections


Staphylococcus Respiratory tract infections

  • · Ventilator-associated nosocomial pneumonia
  • · Septic pulmonary emboli
  • · Empyema.


Staphylococcus Bacteremia


Staphylococcus Bacteremia

  • · Sepsis and septic shock
  • · Metastatic infections of kidney, joints, bones and lungs.
Staphylococcus Infective endocarditis


Staphylococcus Infective endocarditis

  • · Native valve
  • · Prosthetic valve
  • · Injection drug users.
Antimicrobial therapy for Staphylo coccus aureus infection



  • Antimicrobial therapy for Staphylo coccus aureus infection
  • Penicillin, Nafcillin, Cefazolin, Vancomycin
  • Trimethoprim-SuIphamethoxazole.
Antimicrobial therapy for Staphylo coccus aureus infection



  • Streptococci are Gram+ve bacteria round or ovoid shaped, which grow in chains.
  • Many streptococci which cause human infection pro duce a zone of hemolysis around the bacterial colony on blood agar called beta hemolysis.
  • The beta-hemolytic streptococci are classified into Lancefield groups ABC and D.
  • Group A consists of a single species S. pyogenes. S. pyogenes causes suppurative infections and can cause post-infectious syndromes like acute rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis.
  • Group B is represented by S. agalactiae. It is the lead ing cause of bacterial maningitis in newborns and endometritis in women.
  • Group C causes pharyngitis, cellulitis, pneumonia and bacteremia.
  • Group D is represented by enterococci and S. bovis. Viridans streptococci belong to variable group


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