Viruses General Introduction To VIRAL DISEASES Diagnosis Causative Agents


Viruses General Introduction To VIRAL DISEASES Diagnosis

Viruses Definition

  • Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites which consist of a nucleic acid surrounded by one or more proteins.
  • They can be active, metabolize and replicate only in­side a living cell.
Virusoids red
Viruses Definition and types


  • are nucleic acids dependent on helper vi­rus.


  • are double-stranded RNAs.


  • are abnormal protein molecules which can spread and change the structure of other proteins. They cause diseases like Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Mad-cow disease.

Resistance to viral infections

  • is by physical pro­tection by skin and mucus secretions which wash off the virus.
  • Other means of resistance are Interferons – IFN al­pha or beta, IFN y, virus specific antibody, HLA class II, class I, T lymphocytes, antibody type IgM, IgG, and IgA.


  • · Serology, Viral isolation in tissue culture, antivi­ral antibodies, ELISA, Western blot.
  • – Polio virus; Coxsackie virus Hepatitis E virus Rubella virus
  • Dengue, Hepatitis C virus SARS
  • Rabies
  • Parainfluenza; Respiratory syncytial; Mumps;
  • Rubeola or measles. Influenza A, B & C HIV virus
  • Caliciviridae Togaviridae Flaviridae Coronaviridae Rhabdoviridae Pa ra myxovi ridae
  • Orthomyxoviridae Retroviridae

Viruses Types

  • Hepadnaviridae
  • Adenoviridae
  • Herpesviridae
  • Hepatitis B Adenoviruses
  • Herpes simplex;
  • Varicella zoster;
  • Epstein-Barr;
  • Cytomegalovirus Small pox or variola

Viral Disease Causative agents

Influenza A & B re
Influenza A & B


  • 1. Influenza A & B

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ed
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ff
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)


  • 2. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)



  • 3. Varicella

Herpes simplexrf
Herpes simplex


  • 4. Herpes simplex

Herpes zoster df
Herpes zoster


  • 5. Herpes zoster

Chronic hepatitis Be
hepatitis B


  • 6. Chronic hepatitis B


  • Ribavirin Acyclovir
  • Acyclovir – Topical, Oral, IV
  • Acyclovir
  • IFN alpha 2b, Lamivudine, Adefovir dipivoxll
  • IFN alpha- 2a or 2b, Pegylated IFN alpha 2a,2b and Ribavirin IFN alpha 2a or alpha 2b


  • Viral vaccines like polio virus, measles, smallpox, HBV, Rubella, Mumps, and Chickenpox.


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