Environmental Lung Diseases (Pneumoconiosis)
- Invironmental lung diseases are certain pulmonary diseases for which environmental exposure or occupational conditions are responsible.
- asbestos lung, asbestos lung cancer, asbestos lung disease, asbestos lung mesothelioma,
- Mineral dust may give rise to restrictive lung diseases. There may be bronchial asthma called occupational asthma in which there is obstructive lung disease which is reversible.
- Diagnostic procedures for pneumoconiosis are – chest x-ray, CT scan, MRI, heavy metal concentration in urine, bacteriology, fungal studies, serology, lung biopsy asbestos lung disease, asbestos lung mesothelioma,asbestos lung, asbestos lung cancer,
- asbestos lung cancer, asbestos lung disease, asbestos lung mesothelioma,
- Asbestosis occurs in workers involved in building, boiler maker, ‘pipes, insulation materials, painters, electricians, fiber glass.
- Asbestos includes Silicates, chrysolite and other organic materials involved in mining, milling and quarry work.
- There is pulmonary fibrosis, cancers of respiratory tract, pleura, peritoneum.
- There is typically diffuse interstitial fibrosis and pulmonary fibrosis.
- There is reduction in diffusion capacity. There is thickening and calcification of parietal pleura especially at the bases. There may be pleural effusion.
- X-ray shows irregular or linear opacities in lower lung fields. HRCT (High resolution computerized tomography) shows distinct changes.
- Smoking and asbestosis increases incidence of lung cancer many times.
- Lung cancers in asbestosis are – Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, mesotheliomas, asbestos lung mesothelioma, asbestos lung cancer, asbestos lung disease, asbestos lung mesothelioma,
- is to avoid exposure and give symptomatic management.
- Free silica or crystalline quartz exposure is common in mining, stone cutting, glass and ceme.nt manufacturing.
- There is fibrosis, PMF (progressive massive fibrosis), silico tuberculosis.
- There are small rounded opacities in upper lobes, hilar adenopathy, calcification of hilar nodes (egg-shell pattern).
- There is progressive nodular fibrosis.
- There is restrictive as well as obstructive lung disease.
- It leads to ventilatory failure.
- Silico-tuberculosis is the term used for patients of silicosis with M. tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterial infections.
- X-ray, CT are diagnostic.
- There is acute pneumonitis and chronic granulomatous disease. It is due to exposure to beryllium in workers involved in manufacture of alloys, ceramics, hi-tech electronics.
- There is restrictiv Lung disease as in Sarcoidosis.
COAL WORKERS PNEUMOCONIOSIS
- There is fibrosis, and small, round, regular opacities ~ the lung and nodular fibrosi~.
- Calcification is not seen.
- It is found in coal workers in coal mining with exposure to coal dust.
- It is a mild disease.
- Chest x-ray shows nodules from 1 cm to entire lobe. Caplan’s syndrome includes pneumoconiosis of coal workers, rheumatoid arthritis and PMF (progressive massive fibrosis). This syndrome is due to immunopathologic causes.
COTTON DUST DISEASE (BYSSINOSIS)
- Byssinosis is a disease in persons exposed to cotton, flax, or hemp, especially those involved with blowing and straightening the fibers.
- There is tightness in the chest especially on Mondays that is first work day of the week, decrease in FEV1, obstructive lung disease and bronchospasm.
- Chest x-ray may show round, irregular, small or big opacities which may obscure (hide) lung markings.
- is avoiding exposure, and antihistamines. The disease is severe in cigarette-smokers.
OTHER OCCUPATIONAL DUSTS DISEASE
- Many inorganic and organic dusts can cause environmental lung diseases.
- Examples of Inorganic dusts – Antimony, arsenic, cadmium, cement, chromium, mica, iron, graphite.
- Examples of Organic dusts – Cotton, grains, hay.
CHEMICAL AGENTS TOXIC TO THE lUNG
- Acid fumes (sulphuric and nitric acid), ammonia, cyanides, formaldehyde, ozone, sulphur dioxide, phosgene.