How to take good medical history & examination

Medical History — record the history as follows — In medical science The History taking is an art which comes by Experience examination main present complaints history of present illness previous history of illness [females] menstrual history family history previous treatment history social and occupation history psychiatric history, etc. systemic examination GIT,Abdomen,Pelvic systems  — pain– site, […]

CONSTIPATION Causes Risk Factors and Constipation Treatment Management

CONSTIPATION Causes Risk Factors and Constipation Treatment Management CONSTIPATION Constipation is a decrease in frequency of passage of stools to less than 3 per week, passage of hard stools, with straining, abdominal fullness and a sense of in­complete evacuation. hard stools, excessive straining, prolonged time spent on the toilet, a sense of incomplete evacuation, and […]

Coronary Angiography -Indications of Coronary Arteriography (Angiography)

  Coronary Arteriography (Angiography) Radio-opaque dye is injected into a peripheral artery and coronary arteries are visualized for any obstruc­tive atherosclerotic lesions. cardiac catheterization was primarily a diagnostic procedure that was used to evaluate ventricular function, and coronary anatomy hemodynamics,. diagnostic catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are done by skin puncture ,under local anesthesia, […]

Tricuspid Stenosis and Tricuspid Regurgitation Symptoms Investigations and Treatment

Tricuspid Stenosis and Tricuspid Regurgitation   Symptoms of Tricuspid Stenosis and Tricuspid Regurgitation with Physical findings Treatment     Tricuspid stenosis is an uncommon valvular abnormality that most commonly occurs in association with other valvular lesions. Regurgitation caused not by valvular disorder but by dilatation of ventricles, the great vessels, or valve rings. Tricuspid Regurgitation […]

Aortic Regurgitation Symptoms of Aortic Regurgitation Aortic Regurgitation TREATMENT

Aortic Regurgitation SYMPTOMS of Aortic Regurgitation Aortic Regurgitation  PHYSICAL FINDINGS Aortic Regurgitation TREATMENT Aortic Regurgitation or aortic incompetence is a regurgitation of blood into the left ventricle dur­ing diastole due to defective closure of the aortic valve. A backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach or […]

Mitral Stenosis Causes Symptoms of Mitral Stenosis Etiology of Mitral Stenosis Treatment of Mitral Stenosis

  Mitral Stenosis Treatment of Mitral Stenosis causes and Etiology of Mitral Stenosis with Symptoms of Mitral Stenosis Mitral Stenosis is narrowing of the mitral valve due to which there is a restriction of blood flow from left atrium to left ventricle. It is more com­mon in females. Mitral stenosis (MS), resulting from thickening and […]

Atrial fibrillation Causes and Treatment Indications of DC Cardioversion

  Atrial fibrillation TACHYARRHYTHMIAS Indications of DC Cardioversion — Cardiovasculer examination, RRHYTHMIAS, Sinus Tachycardia     Atrial fibrillation is recognized by : ·Absence of P waves ·P waves re laced by fibrillatory waves or undulating baseli~at frequency 350-600 perminute R waves irregularly irregular and of varying amplitude QRS normal.     Causes Of Atrial fibrillation : […]

PSVT (Paroxysmal supraventricular Tachycardia) TACHYARRHYTHMIAS SINUS TACHYCARDIA

  TACHYARRHYTHMIAS PSVT Paroxysmal supraventricular Tachycardia DIAGNOSIS with Treatment       SINUS TACHYCARDIA —     Heart rate exceeds 100 beats/min Gradual onset and offset Normal PQRST.   PSVT Proxysmal supraventricular Tachycardia —     Features of PSVT     There is sudden onset and offset of very fast regular heart beats (120 – […]

Cardiac Arrhythmias Definitions Mechanisms and Methods for Detecting Arrhythmias

Cardiac Arrhythmias Types and Definitions Mechanisms with Methods for Diagnosis Arrhythmias   Mechanisms of arrhythmias Problems of impulse formation i.e. automaticity. Problems of impulse conduction i.e. Block I Reentry.   Methods for Detecting Arrhythmias Is to monitor the ECG, Transtelephonic monitoring, Holter monitoring, invasive ECG recordings. Transtelephonic monitoring Cardiac monitoring in which the patient uses a […]

Sinus Tachycardia and Sinus Bradycardia Definition Causes and Treatment

Sinus Tachycardia and Sinus Bradycardia General idea with definition and causes and Treatment   Sinus Tachycardia Definition — Sinus tachycardia is a heart rate more than 100 beats/min.   Causes of Sinus Tachycardia Fever, thyrotoxicosis, exercise, anaemia, lack of activity, hypertension etc. Drugs like Sorbitrate, .Nifedipine, nasal decongestants drops, atropine eye drops etc can cause […]