Chikungunya Virus Infection

An alphavirus, typically found inSoutheast Asia, or Africa  that can be transmitted to humans by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. After an incubation period of about a week, headache, nausea, vomiting, the virus produces high fevers, and severe joint pain, usually in the wrists or ankles.

Chikungunya Virus Infection u
Chikungunya Virus Infection

 

Chikungunyar
Chikungunya Virus

 

pathogenesis of Chikungunya —

  • The pathogenesis of the severe and persistent joint symptoms that characterize chikungunya virus infections is uncertain.
  • Chikungunya is a single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Alphavirus (Togaviridae family).
  • Some data suggest that macrophage-derived products such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 may play important roles in the joint tissue damage

The name chikungunya is derived from a local language of Tanzania meaning “that which bends up” or “stooped walk” because of the incapacitating arthralgia caused by the disease.

  • Chikungunya is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) endemic to West Africa that causes acute febrile polyarthralgia and arthritis.
  • Chikungunya had traditionally been perceived as a tropical disease until an outbreak in Italy in 2007,
  • Chikungunya Virus infection is a disease transmit­ted by the Aedes and Culex mosquito similar to den­gue viral infection.
  • he major chikungunya virus mosquito vectors are Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, they also capable of transmitting dengue virus, which, like chikungunya virus.
Chikungunyaed
ChikungunyaVirus infection is a disease transmit­ted by the Aedes and Culex mosquito
Chikungunyaef
ChikungunyaVirus infection is a disease transmit­ted by the Aedes and Culex mosquito

 

  • Chikungunya means ‘that which bends up’ (patient doubles up with joint pains).
  • Rapid spread of chikungunya virus has been observed in outbreaks involving the Indian Ocean islands, where attack rates have been extremely high in previously unexposed populations
  • Chikungunya virus is endemic in parts of West Africa where it appears to be maintained in a cycle involving humans, Aedes mosquitoes, primates and perhaps other animals.
  • The disease is found in Africa and Asia.

The appearance and spread of chikungunya virus in India was observed after a hiatus of almost 32 years In India, nearly 1.4 million cases of chikungunya fever were reported in 2006, and outbreaks have continued to occur.

  • Chikungunya virus spreads by means of travel of infected individuals between regions where competent mosquitoes exist for perpetuation of local transmission.
  • In India the disease is found in Kolkata, Chennai and Karnatak.
  • The disease is common in adults. Incubation period is 2-3 days.
Chikungunyaoi
Clinical features of Chikungunya

Clinical features of Chikungunya

  • Following acute illness (usually lasting 7 to 10 days),
  • There is fever, severe arthralgia, chills, headache, photophobia, conjunctival injection, anorexia, nau­sea, abdominal pain.
  • some patients may experience persistent rheumatologic signs and symptoms including arthritis/arthralgia,
  • morning pain and stiffness edematous polyarthritis of fingers and toes,  and severe tenosynovitis ( of hands and ankles)
  • There is migratory polyarthritis of hands, wrists, ankles and feet and sometimes larger joints also.
  • Rashes appear within one or two days on the trunk and limbs.
  • There may be petechiae and epistaxis. There is recovery in a few weeks.
  • There may be persistent stiffness and joint pains, especially in HLA-B27 patients.
Chikungunyarre
Clinical features of Chikungunya

Lab findings of Chikungunya

  • There may be leukopenia,
  • increased AST,
  • C-reactive protein,
  • decreased platelet count.

Chikungunya Treatment

  • Treatment of chikungunya infection consists of supportive care including anti-inflammatory agents that relieve symptoms in many patients and analgesic agents
  • Cefixime and Fluoroquinolones like Ofloxacin may be given.
  • A live attenuated vaccine has been developed for pre­vention.
  • Prevention consists of minimizing mosquito exposure