Details Descriptions About :: Conjunctivitis

 Conjunctivitis is characterized by hyperemia of the conjunctiva. The three main types of conjunctivitis are infectious (called pinkeye), allergic, and chemical. This disorder usually occurs as benign, self-limiting pinkeye; it may also be chronic, possibly indicating degenerative changes or damage from repeated acute attacks. Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis is an acute, highly contagious viral conjunctivitis. Careful hand washing is essential to prevent the spread of conjunctivitis.

Causes for Conjunctivitis

Causes Infectious conjunctivitis Most commonly by: Bacterial—Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis Chlamydial—Chlamydia trachomatis (inclusion conjunctivitis) Viral—adenovirus types 3, 7, and 8; herpes simplex 1 Allergic conjunctivitis Hypersensitivity to: Pollen, grass, unknown seasonal allergens (vernal conjunctivitis), animals Topical medications, cosmetics, fabrics Air pollutants, smoke Contact lenses or solutions Chemical conjunctivitis Chemical reaction to: Environmental irritants (wind, dust, smoke, swimming pool chlorine) Occupational irritants (acids, alkalies)

Pathophysiology Conjunctivitis

Pathophysiology Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the transparent layer covering the surfaces in the inner eyelid and the front of the eyeball. It usually begins in one eye and rapidly spreads to the other by contamination of towels, washcloths, or the patient’s own hands. Vernal conjunctivitis (so called because symptoms tend to be worse in the spring) is a severe form of immunoglobulin E–mediated mast cell hypersensitivity reaction. This form of conjunctivitis is bilateral. It usually begins between ages 3 and 5 and persists for about 10 years. It’s sometimes associated with other signs of allergy commonly related to pollens, asthma, or allergic rhinitis.

Signs and symptoms Conjunctivitis

Signs and symptoms Hyperemia of the conjunctiva Discharge, tearing Pain, photophobia Acute bacterial conjunctivitis (pinkeye) Usually lasts only 2 weeks Itching, burning, and the sensation of a foreign body in the eye Crust of sticky, mucopurulent discharge on the eyelids N. gonorrhoeae conjunctivitis Itching, burning, foreign body sensation Profuse, purulent discharge Viral conjunctivitis Copious tearing, minimal exudate Enlargement of the preauricular lymph node In children, sore throat or fever if the cause is an adenovirus Variable time course, depending on the virus: some self-limiting, lasting 2 to 3 weeks others chronic, producing a severe disabling disease

Diagnostic Lab Test results

Diagnostic test results In stained smears of conjunctival scrapings, the predominance of lymphocytes indicates viral infection; of neutrophils, bacterial infection; of eosinophils, allergy-related infection. Culture and sensitivity tests identify the causative organism.

Treatment for Conjunctivitis

Treatment Bacterial conjunctivitis: topical appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotic Viral conjunctivitis: resists treatment; most important aspect of treatment is preventing transmission herpes simplex infection generally responsive to treatment with trifluridine drops, vidarabine ointment, oral acyclovir secondary infection possibly prevented by sulfonamide or broad-spectrum antibiotic eyedrops Vernal (allergic) conjunctivitis: corticosteroid drops followed by cromolyn sodium cold compresses to relieve itching occasionally, oral antihistamines

 

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