Now we are starting the series of – Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular System 1

Cardiovascular System examination

The general appearance should be evaluated.

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  • A patient with low cardiac output looks tired and breathless.
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  • A patient of pulmonary congestion / pulmonary edema is breathless and respiratory rate is increased.
  • Central cyanosis with clubbing indicates right to left cardiac shunt.
  • In heart failure the patient looks cyanosed with cool skin.
  • A patient of infective endocarditis has petechiae, Osler’s nodes (Osler’s nodes are tender painful pulps of finger tips).
  • The blood pressure is measured in both arms and with patient supine and upright.
  • Heart rate is counted.
  • All the peripheral pulses are examined like radial brachial, carotids, dorsalis pedis, posterior tibial, popliteal and femoral arteries.
  • Fundoscopy should be done.

The abdomen is examined –

  • abdominal aorta is pal­pated, pulsations of liver may be seen due to tricus­pid regurgitation, epigastric pulsations may be seen due to right ventricular hypertrophy or abdominal aortic aneurysm.
  • Ascites may be due to heart failure or constrictive pericarditis.
  • systolic bruit over the kidneys may be due to renal artery stenosis and systemic hypertension.
  • after this in next post we will discus deep examination of Cardiovascular System

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