Hospital Acquired Infections Causes and Prevention –

About 5-10% of patients develop HAl Hospital Acquired Infections or nosocomial infections.  Hospital acquired infections are difficult to treat,cause epidemic problems,  costly, have high morbidity, are preventable., There is a high incidence of nosocomial infections in patients on ventilators.

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Hospital Acquired Infections Causes and Prevention


Hospital Acquired Infections Defenition —

  • Hospital acquired infection (HAl) is defined as in­fection which occurs after admission and which was not incubating at the time of admission.
  • Hospital acquired infections are difficult to treat, costly, have high morbidity, cause epidemic problems, are preventable.
  • About 5-10% of patients develop HAl or nosocomial infections. There is a high incidence of nosocomial infections in patients on ventilators.
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Sources of Hospital Acquired Infections


Causes of Hospital Acquired Infections

  • · Immunocompromised patients
  • · Antibiotic resistant bacteria
  • · Fungal and viral super infections
  • · Invasive devices
  • · Invasive procedures.
How to Prevention of Hospital Acquired Infections


Prevention of HAl [Hospital Acquired Infections]
  • Hand hygiene Isolation precautions Training of personnel
  • Invasive devices only when needed Invasive devices removed when not needed Antimicrobials – Restricted use
  • Only specific appropriate antibiotic given Antibiotic discontinued timely
  • Control of tuberculosis
  • Study of hospital blood borne pathogens Infected patients segregated
  • Surgical wounds discussed with experts.


NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS Urinary Tract Infections:

  • · Prevention – Catheters used when necessary.
  • · Aseptic techniques for catheter insertion.
  • · Remove catheters as soon as possible.
  • · Common organisms are E.coli, candida, enterococci, gram negative bacilli, Staph aureus.

Hospital Acquired Infections Pneumonia:

  • · Occurs due to aspiration.
  • · Organisms are Strepto pneumoniae, Staph aureus, Hemophilus, Enterobacter, Pseudomo­nas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae.
  • · Prevention – prevent aspiration.
  • · Aseptic care of nebulizers, breathing circuit.
  • · Aseptic suctioning, systemic antibiotics.
Antibiotic therapy of Hospital Acquired Infections


Infections due to Vascular access and Monitor­ing:

  • · Prevention – Maximum sterile barrier precautions during insertion.
  • · Avoid femoral site for catheterization.
  • · Move the peripheral catheters to new sites ev­ery 72 hours.
  • · Transparent dressings.
  • · Organisms are – Staph aureus, Enterococci,
  • Gram negative bacilli, Candida.

Infections due to Legionella :

  • Legionella pneumonia is due to contamination of po­table water especially in immunocompromized pa­tients.


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