Details Descriptions About :: schizophrenia

Schizophrenia causes symptoms treatment 

Description of Schizophrenia

DefinitionAccording to dictionary definition  Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects the thinking process, emotions, and behavior and causes a person to lose contact with reality. The person may feel, see, or hear things that are not present.Schizophrenia and psychotic disorders have a lifetime prevalence of 1.4% in India.  Causes and Risk FactorsAccording to dictionary definition  The exact cause of schizophrenia is not known. It is believed that genes play a major role in schizophrenia.Having someone in the family increases the risk of schizophrenia. The risk is 10% if one of the parents has schizophrenia and 40% if the both the parents have the condition. The risk increases to 50% if an identical twin has the condition.Environmental factors that may increase the risk of schizophrenia include problems during birth, such as:1. Low birth weight2. Malnutrition3. Iron deficiency in mother4. Low folate with increased homocysteine levels during the third trimester of pregnancy5. Extreme stress such as hunger and famine6. Gestational diabetes7. Infections
Other risk factors include:1. Drug abuse — cannabis2. Childhood abuseSchizophrenia usually occurs during the early 20s or late 30s. However, it may also occur in children or after the age of 45 years. In children, it occurs between 13 years and 18 years of age and is more severe.  Signs and SymptomsAccording to dictionary definition  People with schizophrenia may hear voices that are not there. They may think other people are trying to hurt them. Sometimes they do not make sense when they talk.Symptoms of schizophrenia are divided into positive, negative, and cognitive types.
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia include:1. Seeing or hearing things, not present (hallucinations)2. Strong false beliefs (delusions)3. Disorganized thought4. Abnormal movements of hands and legs
5. Schizophrenia causes a person to lose touch with reality (psychosis).
Negative symptoms include:1. Problems with emotional expression2. Lack of motivation or interest3. Difficulty in interacting with others4. Reduced speech5. Inability to feel pleasure in any activity
Cognitive symptoms include:1. Inability to concentrate or pay attention2. Difficulty in understanding and processing information3. Problems with memory4. Problems with language
Schizophrenia affects work and relationships. The person may not be able to take care of himself.  InvestigationsAccording to dictionary definition  The diagnosis of schizophrenia depends primarily on the patient €™s symptomatic history. The doctor will ask questions to the patient and family members or friends of the patient. Schizophrenia is confirmed if at least two or more symptoms are present for more than a month with some disturbances over a 6 month period.The doctor may conduct a physical examination and order blood and urine tests to rule out other diseases.Imaging tests such as MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) or EEG (electroencephalography) may be done to rule out epilepsy.Blood test for metabolic screening may be done in children to rule out certain serious disorders that cause an abnormal reaction in the body.  TreatmentAccording to dictionary definition  Schizophrenia does not have a cure. The patient may need a long-term treatment that involves management of the symptoms using medications and helping a patient lead a normal life through social support and training.The doctor may prescribe the following antipsychotic medicines. These are available as the first generation and second generation antipsychotics. The first generation antipsychotics include:1. Loxapine2. Haloperidol
Second generation antipsychotics include:1. Clozapine2. Olanzapine3. Risperidone  The doctor may prescribe different medicines to see which works the best for you. It is important to take all the medications and as long as recommended by the doctor.Other medicines that may be prescribed include:1. Sedatives2. Antidepressants to treat depression or anxiety3. Anticholinergics to treat extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) such as restlessness or movement disorder
Other strategies for helping a schizophrenic patient involve:1. Psychotherapy2. Involvement of family and friends in the treatment3. Family education4. Vocational rehabilitation5. Social skills training  Complications and When Should You See a DoctorAccording to dictionary definition  Schizophrenia affects a patient €™s work, relationships, and ability to lead a normal life. The antipsychotic medicines used to treat hallucinations and delusions may also have side effects such as:1. Instability of the posture2. Slowness of movement3. Muscle spasms or tremor4. Weight gain5. Sleepiness6. Cardiovascular diseases7. Type 2 diabetesSee a doctor if you have symptoms of schizophrenia.  Prognosis and PreventionAccording to dictionary definition  Prognosis depends on the adherence of treatment. Smoking, poor health habits, and not following the treatment regime may increase the risk of complications including:1. Hospitalization2. Relapse3. Violent behavior4. Suicide and deathSchizophrenia cannot be prevented. Early treatment, taking the medicines regularly, therapy and friends, and family support and may help to control the symptoms and help a patient lead a normal life.  ReferencesAccording to dictionary definition  Berges AA. Schizophrenia. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri €™s Clinical Advisor 2018. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:1144-1145.e1.Bope ET, Kellerman RD. Psychiatric disorders. In: Bope ET, Kellerman RD, eds. Conn’s Current Therapy 2017. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 10.Gururaj G, Varghese M, Benegal V, et al. and NMHS collaborators group. National Mental Health Survey of India, 2015-16: Prevalence, patterns and outcomes. Bengaluru, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, NIMHANS Publication No. 129, 2016.National Institute of Mental Health. National Institute of Health. Updated February 2016. Accessed July 3, 2017.  



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