Chikungunya Virus Infection Diagnosis Clinical Signs and Symptoms withTreatment

Chikungunya Virus Infection

An alphavirus, typically found inSoutheast Asia, or Africa  that can be transmitted to humans by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. After an incubation period of about a week, headache, nausea, vomiting, the virus produces high fevers, and severe joint pain, usually in the wrists or ankles.

Chikungunya Virus Infection u
Chikungunya Virus Infection

 

Chikungunyar
Chikungunya Virus

 

pathogenesis of Chikungunya —

  • The pathogenesis of the severe and persistent joint symptoms that characterize chikungunya virus infections is uncertain.
  • Chikungunya is a single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Alphavirus (Togaviridae family).
  • Some data suggest that macrophage-derived products such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 may play important roles in the joint tissue damage

The name chikungunya is derived from a local language of Tanzania meaning “that which bends up” or “stooped walk” because of the incapacitating arthralgia caused by the disease.

  • Chikungunya is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) endemic to West Africa that causes acute febrile polyarthralgia and arthritis.
  • Chikungunya had traditionally been perceived as a tropical disease until an outbreak in Italy in 2007,
  • Chikungunya Virus infection is a disease transmit­ted by the Aedes and Culex mosquito similar to den­gue viral infection.
  • he major chikungunya virus mosquito vectors are Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, they also capable of transmitting dengue virus, which, like chikungunya virus.
Chikungunyaed
ChikungunyaVirus infection is a disease transmit­ted by the Aedes and Culex mosquito
Chikungunyaef
ChikungunyaVirus infection is a disease transmit­ted by the Aedes and Culex mosquito

 

  • Chikungunya means ‘that which bends up’ (patient doubles up with joint pains).
  • Rapid spread of chikungunya virus has been observed in outbreaks involving the Indian Ocean islands, where attack rates have been extremely high in previously unexposed populations
  • Chikungunya virus is endemic in parts of West Africa where it appears to be maintained in a cycle involving humans, Aedes mosquitoes, primates and perhaps other animals.
  • The disease is found in Africa and Asia.

The appearance and spread of chikungunya virus in India was observed after a hiatus of almost 32 years In India, nearly 1.4 million cases of chikungunya fever were reported in 2006, and outbreaks have continued to occur.

  • Chikungunya virus spreads by means of travel of infected individuals between regions where competent mosquitoes exist for perpetuation of local transmission.
  • In India the disease is found in Kolkata, Chennai and Karnatak.
  • The disease is common in adults. Incubation period is 2-3 days.
Chikungunyaoi
Clinical features of Chikungunya

Clinical features of Chikungunya

  • Following acute illness (usually lasting 7 to 10 days),
  • There is fever, severe arthralgia, chills, headache, photophobia, conjunctival injection, anorexia, nau­sea, abdominal pain.
  • some patients may experience persistent rheumatologic signs and symptoms including arthritis/arthralgia,
  • morning pain and stiffness edematous polyarthritis of fingers and toes,  and severe tenosynovitis ( of hands and ankles)
  • There is migratory polyarthritis of hands, wrists, ankles and feet and sometimes larger joints also.
  • Rashes appear within one or two days on the trunk and limbs.
  • There may be petechiae and epistaxis. There is recovery in a few weeks.
  • There may be persistent stiffness and joint pains, especially in HLA-B27 patients.
Chikungunyarre
Clinical features of Chikungunya

Lab findings of Chikungunya

  • There may be leukopenia,
  • increased AST,
  • C-reactive protein,
  • decreased platelet count.

Chikungunya Treatment

  • Treatment of chikungunya infection consists of supportive care including anti-inflammatory agents that relieve symptoms in many patients and analgesic agents
  • Cefixime and Fluoroquinolones like Ofloxacin may be given.
  • A live attenuated vaccine has been developed for pre­vention.
  • Prevention consists of minimizing mosquito exposure
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