Details Descriptions About :: benign prostatic hyperplasia

Benign prostatic hyperplasia causes symptoms treatment 

Description of Benign prostatic hyperplasia

DefinitionAccording to dictionary definition  Benign prostatic hyperplasia  (BPH) is an overgrowth of the prostate gland, a gland located between the penis and the bladder. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra and produces a fluid that forms a part of the semen. BPH is not cancer.  Causes and Risk FactorsAccording to dictionary definition  The cause of BPH is not clearly known. The risk factors include:1. Age — BPH usually occurs in men above the age of 50 years. Its incidence increases with age. Almost 88% of men develop BPH by the 80 years of age.2. Testicular function — the presence of testicular function increases the risk of BPH. It does not occur in men who have been castrated (testicles are removed) for some reason.  Signs and SymptomsAccording to dictionary definition  The enlarged prostate compresses the urethra and makes the passage of urine through it difficult. The symptoms include:1. Frequent need to urinate2. Inability to void completely3. Leakage of urine4. Inability to hold the urine5. Need to wake up at night to urinate6. Incomplete emptying of the bladder
The size of the prostate gland is not related to the severity of symptoms. However, increased inflammation may increase the severity of BPH.Severe BPH symptoms include:1. Blood in the urine2. Stones in the bladder3. Inability to empty the bladder4. Urinary tract infection  InvestigationsAccording to dictionary definition  The investigations for BPH include the following:1. History of the symptoms and how long you have had them.2. Digital rectal exam to check the size of the prostate gland. The doctor will insert a gloved finger into the rectum and feels the prostate gland.3. Urine tests and urine culture to check for infections4. Blood test to check prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. The PSA is a protein made by the prostate glands. Elevated levels of PSA may indicate prostate cancer.
Other tests for severe BPH may include:1. Uroflowmetry to measure the flow rate and the force with which urine is passed. It is also called uroflow test.2. Post-void residual (PVR) test to measure the volume of urine left in the bladder after passing urine.3. Urethrocystoscopy to look for abnormalities inside the bladder5. Ultrasound of the prostate gland may be done before doing an invasive procedure such as a surgery to correct BPH.  TreatmentAccording to dictionary definition  BPH is treated through both invasive and non-invasive procedures. The treatment mainly aims at:1. Reducing the size of the prostate gland2. Correcting the smooth muscle tone of the prostate gland
The doctor may prescribe the following medicines for BPH:1. Antiandrogens: These drugs block the effect of the male sex hormone testosterone and dihydrotestosterone.2. a-Adrenergic receptor antagonists: These medicines relax the muscle of the prostate. They act quickly and improve the symptoms in 1 to 2 weeks. These do not affect the size of the prostate gland. Examples include tamsulosin.3. 5a-Reductase inhibitors: These medicines block the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and help in reducing the size of the prostate gland. However, the effect may not be seen very soon and it may take up to 6 months. These are usually prescribed when there is a large increase in the size of the prostate gland. Examples include finasteride and dutasteride.
Surgery may be required if the patient is not able to pass urine. The doctor may perform transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). This process involves removing the tissue of the prostate gland that is obstructing the urine flow.Other invasive procedures to remove the obstructing prostate tissue may include the use of:1. Hyperthermia2. Microwave thermotherapy3. Laser-based tissue coagulation  Complications and When Should You See a DoctorAccording to dictionary definition  If BPH is not treated it may lead to complications such as:1. Inability to pass urine2. Bladder dysfunction3. Kidney disease that may require dialysisIn extreme cases, BPH can lead to death.
Using antiandrogens for treatment may have side effects. These include:1. Increase in breast size2. Weakening of bones3. Loss of libido4. Problems with erection5. Problems with metabolism of glucose
Conditions that may be associated with BPH include:1. Obesity2. Diabetes3. Heart diseases  Prognosis and PreventionAccording to dictionary definition  The symptoms of BPH may get better with treatment. However, the medications may cause some side-effects. It is not possible to prevent BPH.  ReferencesAccording to dictionary definition  Beardsley EK, Frydenberg M, Risbridger GP. Endocrinology of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 143.Roehrborn CG. Benign prostatic hyperplasia: Etiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and natural history. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: chap 103.  



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