Endocrine system | MedicScientist :: Total Health Portal

Diabetic Nephropathy and Renal complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus)

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) Renal Long-Term complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus) Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is responsible for high morbidity and mortality. DN is associated with diabetic retinopathy and hy­perglycemia. DN is due to the effect of growth factors, Angiotensin Il, endothelin, AGEs. A high body mass index (BMI) has been associated with an increased risk of […]

Ophthalmologic Complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus)

Chronic Long-Term Ophthalmologic Complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus) Blindness – occurs due to progressive diabetic Ret­inopathy and macular oedema. Diabetic retinopathy may be non-proliferative and proliferative. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most important causes of visual loss worldwide, and is the principal cause of impaired vision in patients between 25 and 74 years […]

Chronic Long-term Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus

CHRONIC COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES MEL­LITUS COMMON DISEASES DUE TO DM HYPERGLYCEMIA AND MICROVASCULAR DISEASE — Hyperglycemia is an important risk factor for the development of microvascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes, as it is in patients with type 1 diabetes. Chronic Long-term complications result in morbidity and mor­tality. Children and adolescents with type 2 […]

Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS) Acute Complication Of DM

HYPERGLYCEMIC HYPEROSMOLAR STATE (HHS) hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS, also known as nonketotic hyperglycemia) and Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are of the most serious acute complications of diabetes. hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS, also called nonketotic hyperglycemia) In HHS, there is little or no ketoacid accumulation, the serum glucose concentration frequently exceeds 1000 mg/dL (56 mmol/L), the plasma […]

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Acute Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus

ACUTE COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES MELLITUS (DKA) DKA is characterized by the triad of hyperglycemia, anion gap metabolic acidosis, and ketonemia. Metabolic acidosis is often the major finding. The serum glucose concentration is usually greater than 500 mg/dL (27.8 mmol/L) and less than 800 mg/dL (44.4 mmol/L)  . However, serum glucose concentrations may exceed 900 mg/dL […]

Metabolic,Insulin Resistance Syndrome X Causes Symptoms

INSULIN RESISTANCE SYNDROMES or Syndrome X Overview (metabolic syndrome)- consists of : Insulin resistance Hypertension Dyslipidemias Obesity – central Endothelial dysfunction Accelerated cardiovascular disease. The co-occurrence of metabolic risk factors for both type 2 diabetes and CVD (abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemias, and hypertension) suggested the existence of a “metabolic syndrome”  . A similar profile can […]

Diabetes mellitus Types,Causes,Symptoms and Diagnosis

Diabetes mellitus Overview Types Causes,Symptoms with Diagnosis Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders with hyperglycemia. Glucose intolerance is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in glucose and fat metabolism. Overt diabetes is classified as type 1 (T1DM), type 2 (T2DM), and gestational (GDM) A chronic metabolic disorder marked by hyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus (DM) […]

Pheochromocytoma Clinical Features Diagnosis Treatment

All about Pheochromocytoma Clinical Features Diagnosis Treatment Definition A tumor derived from neural crest cells of the sympathetic nervous system that is responsible for about 0.1% to 2% of all cases of hypertension. Catecholamine-secreting tumors that arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic ganglia are referred to as “pheochromocytomas” and “extra-adrenal […]

Some Facts about Glucocorticoid & Major side effects

Facts about Glucocorticoid & Hypermineralocorticoidism Major side effects Definition : [Gr. gleukos, sweet (new wine), + L. cortex, + Gr. eidos, form, shape] A general classification of adrenal cortical hormones that are primarily active in protecting against stress and in affecting protein and carbohydrate metabolism. The most important glucocorticoid is cortisol (hydrocortisone). Isolated glucocorticoid deficiency It […]

Thyroid Goiter

GOITER of THYROID Acute thyroiditis is an inflammatory condition of thy­roid due to suppurative infection. enlarged thyroid gland may be caused by thyroiditis, benign thyroid nodules, malignancy, iodine deficiency, or any condition that causes hyperfunction or hypofunction of the gland Types of GOITER aberrant goiter: A supernumerary goiter. acute goiter: A goiter that grows rapidly. […]

Aldosteronism Clinical features Causes and Treatment

Aldosteronism   Clinical features Causes and Treatment definition Aldosteronism is a syndrome with hypersecretion of mineralocorticoid aldosterone. Primary aldosteronism is excessive aldosterone production due to disease of adrenal glands. It is also called nodular hyperplasia or idiopathic hyperaldos­teronism. Nonsuppressible (primary) hypersecretion of aldosterone is a underdiagnosed cause of hypertension. There is hypokalemia, diastolic hypertension, extra […]

LABORATORY TESTS FOR ADRENAL FUNCTIONS

LABORATORY TESTS FOR ADRENAL FUNCTION · Tests of pituitary adrenal responsiveness. · Suppression tests -are measurement of target hormone response after suppression of its tropic hormone. · Stimulation tests · Plasma ‘Levels of ACTH and angiotensin II. · Measurement of urinary free cortisol · Measurement of urinary creatinine · Measurement of plasma and urinary level […]

Adrenal Gland Steroids

Adrenal Gland Diseases 9V7GZUQ7PBG5 The adrenal cortex produces 3 steroids: 9V7GZUQ7PBG5  9V7GZUQ7PBG5 1. Glucocorticoids 2. Mineralocorticoids 3. Adrenal androgens The function of these steroids are: 1. Glucocorticoids – modulate intermediary me­tabolism and immune responses of the body. 2. Mineralocorticoids – Regulate blood pressure, vascular volume and electrolytes. 3. Adrenal androgens are responsible for second­ary sex […]

Grave’s disease Causes and Treatment

Grave’s disease Grave’s disease is thyrotoxicosis, common in females, associated with high iodine intake, occurring between 20 – 50 years of age. Grave’s ophthalmopathy Besides the signs of thyrotoxicosis, there is Grave’s ophthalmopathy. decreased extraocular muscle mobility, and corneal injury, periorbital edema, periorbital and conjunctival inflammation, Ophthalmopathy associated with hyperthyroidism with the clinical characteristics of […]

Hyperthyroidism or THYROTOXICOSIS Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

Thyrotoxicosis is a state of thyroid hormone excess. Hyperthyroidism is excessive thyroid function. Hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis defines a spectrum of clinical findings consistent with thyroid hormone excess. Causes of Thyrotoxicosis Primary hyperthyroidism · Grave’s disease · Toxic multinodular goitre · Toxic adenoma · Thyroid carcinoma · Iodine excess (Jod-Basedow phenomenon) · Subacute thyroiditis · Drugs […]

Myxedema coma Diagnosis and Treatment

Myxedema coma  This is a state of hypothyroidism with altered con­sciousness or coma, sometimes seizures. There may be hypothermia. It is common in the elderly, and precipitated by seda-‘ tives, antidepressants, pneumonia, CHF, MI, cere­brovascular accidents. marked by neurological dysfunction, by respiratory depression, and by lowered body temperature, blood pressure, blood sugar, and serum sodium. […]

HYPOTHYROIDISM Causes Diagnosis and Treatment

What is HYPOTHYROIDISM ? Hypothyroidism is a state of deficient function of the thyroid gland i.e. deficient secretion of thyroid hor­mones. In hypothyroidism normal thyroid hormone levels are maintained by a rise in TSH. This is called subclinical hypothyroidism. Later free T4 level falls and TSH levels rise further. This is the stage of clinical […]

SIADH or Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (AVP)

SIADH or Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (AVP) There is excessive secretion of AVP resulting in pas­sage of decreased volume of highly concentrated urine. There is water retention and decrease in plasma so­dium and plasma osmolarity. It is called dilutional hyponatraemia. It may be asymptomatic or there may be headache, confusion, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, coma and […]

Diabetes Insipidus (DI) Causes Diagnosis and Treatment

Diabetes insipidus (DI) Disorders of Neurohypophysis  The neurohypophysis or posterior pituitary gland is made up of nerve tissues originating in su­praoptic and paraventricular nuclei of hypothala­mus. It produces 2 hormones: 1. AVP or arginine vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH). 2. Oxytocin AVP acts on renal tubules to absorb the water back into the […]

Cushing’s Syndrome Symptoms Causes and Treatment

Cushing’s Syndrome Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Cushing’s disease is a hormone disorder caused by high levels of cortisol in the blood disease in which there is ex­cess ACTH secretion, by pituitary adenomas. Cushing’s syndrome is the signs and symptoms that result from prolonged exposure to excessive glucocorticoid hormones. Cushing’s disease: Cushing’s syndrome hormone disorder  […]

ACTH and TSH DEFICIENCY Diagnosis with Treatment

ACTH DEFICIENCY ACTH SYNTHESIS — POMC also contains the sequences for other hormonal peptides, including the melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSHs) lipotropins (LPHs), and beta-endorphin (beta-END) ACTH is synthesized as part of a large precursor (241 amino acids in humans) called proopiomelanocortin (POMC). Adrenal insufficiency secondary to ACTH defi­ciency is due to : · glucocorticoid withdrawal after […]

Growth and Development Disorders GHD Diagnosis Treatment

DISORDERS OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Growth is dependent on GH, IGF, sex steroids, thy­roid hormones, paracrine growth factors and cytokines. Growth also requires caloric energy, amino acids, vi­tamins and trace metals. Short stature results due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors which impair growth. Growth  GHD Causes may be : Most common cause of GHD in children […]

Hypopituitarism Diagnosis and Treatment

PRESENTATIONS OF HYPOPITUITARISM This depends on the hormones which are deficient. GH deficiency causes growth disorder and abnor­mal body structure. Gonadotrophin deficiency causes infertility, men­strual and sexual dysfunction and loss of secondary sexual characteristics in men. TSH and ACTH deficiency cause growth retarda­tion, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency. Mineralo­corticoid action is retained. PRL(prolactin) deficiency causes failure of […]

Anterior Pituitary Hormones and Disorders

Disorders of Anterior PituitaryHormones The anterior pituitary is called the master gland be­ , it regulates the function of most other endocrine organs. The anterior pituitary gla’nd produces 6 major hor­mones. 1, Prolactin (PRL) 2. Growth hormone (GH) 3. Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) 4. Luteinizing hormone (LH) 5. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 6. Thyroid stimulating hormone […]

DIAGNOSIS and Investigations OF SECONDARY HYPERTENSION

DIAGNOSIS OF SECONDARY HYPERTENSION with Investigations nursing diagnosis for high blood pressure secondary hypertension differential diagnosis diagnosis high blood pressure Age of patients of secondary hypertension may be <25 or >50 years. Phaeochromoc toma and renovascular hypertensiof.l are t e likel causes. In phaeochromocytoma there is anxiety, headache, weight loss, hyperglycemia, palpitations and sweat­ing. In […]