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Grave’s disease Causes and Treatment

Grave’s disease Grave’s disease is thyrotoxicosis, common in females, associated with high iodine intake, occurring between 20 – 50 years of age. Grave’s ophthalmopathy Besides the signs of thyrotoxicosis, there is Grave’s ophthalmopathy. decreased extraocular muscle mobility, and corneal injury, periorbital edema, periorbital and conjunctival inflammation, Ophthalmopathy associated with hyperthyroidism with the clinical characteristics of […]

Thyrotoxic crisis or Thyroid storm

Thyrotoxic crisis or thyroid storm It is a life-threatening hyperthyroidism with fever, seizures, coma, vomiting, diarrhoea, jaundice. A rare but often life-threatening medical emergency resulting from untreated hyperthyroidism Death can occur due to cardiac failure, arrhythmias, hyperthermia. Thyrotoxic crisis Symptoms include : — and fingernails may separate from the nail bed (Plummer’s nails). Cardiovascular findings […]

Diabetes Insipidus (DI) Causes Diagnosis and Treatment

Diabetes insipidus (DI) Disorders of Neurohypophysis  The neurohypophysis or posterior pituitary gland is made up of nerve tissues originating in su­praoptic and paraventricular nuclei of hypothala­mus. It produces 2 hormones: 1. AVP or arginine vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH). 2. Oxytocin AVP acts on renal tubules to absorb the water back into the […]

Hypothalamic, Pituitary And Other Sellar Masses

HYPOTHALAMIC, PITUITARY AND OTHER SELLAR MASSES Pituitary tumors , Pituitary adenomas   : Commonest tumors are pitu­itary adenomas. These are benign and their features depend on the cell type from which they occur. They may arise from PRL, GH, ACTH, TSH, LH and FSH producing cells r;esulting in features of hyperse­cretion of the hormones. There is autonomous […]

COMPLICATIONS OF Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) AND TREATMENT -2

Some other COMPLICATIONS OF AMI AND TREATMENT ARRHYTHMIAS RECURRENT ANGINA PERICARDITIS THROMBOEMBOLISM LV ANEURYSM Other measures: – Control of Hypertension – Physical activity – Avoid physical emotional stress. – Cessation of smoking – Control of blood lipids AND OTHER COMPLICATIONS ARE  complications-of-ami-and-treatment-1   1. COMPLICATIONS OF AMI ARRHYTHMIAS Ventricular premature beats (VPB) : No prophy­lactic […]


  COMPLICATIONS OF AMI AND TREATMENT TRICULAR DYSFUNCTION RV INFARCTION RUPTURE OF FREE WALL CARDIOGENIC SHOCK VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT (VSD) MITRAL REGURGITATION (MR)   1. VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION Ventricular remodeling is a series of changes in shape, size and thickness of ventricular myocar­dium after infarction. This leads to global LV dys­function and CHF.   Killip’s classification […]

CARDIAC MARKERS IN MI, AMI and Myocardial Injury

CARDIAC MARKERS IN MI Serum proteins released in blood from necrotic heart muscles after AMI are called serum markers .   Creatinine phosphokinase (CK) Rises in 4 – 8 hours. Returns to normal in 48 – 72 hours.   CK increased in : IM injections Stroke Surgery Trauma Skeletal muscle diseases Electrical cardioversion Hypothyroidism Convulsions, […]

CARDIAC IMAGING echocardiography 2D Echo

CARDIAC IMAGING Very useful.   2D Echo RV infarction: diagnosed by Echo Ventricular aneurysm Pericardial effusion y LV thrombus Wall motion abnormalities are seen Old scars can also cause WMA Decreased LV function is indication for ACE in­hibitor VSD MR is diagnosed easily.   dobutamine stress echocardiography: noninvasive test for coronary artery disease in which […]

MANAGEMENT of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) -1

  MANAGEMENT of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)   MANAGEMENT Management involves Prompt attention and diagnosis. Reperfusion therapy Management of pain. MI is a medical emergency; Typical treatment for the patient includes: diagnosis and treatment should not be delayed. administering oxygen immediately, and giving aspirin and beta blockers, unless there are strong contraindications. ordering fibrinolytic drugs […]


COMPLETE MANAGEMENT OF AMI Coronary Care Unit (CCU) Patients of AMI are admitted to CCU for monitoring of all vital parameters, management of arrhythmias, thrombolytic therapy. For more  management-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-ami and  acute-myocardial-infarction-management-regime-for-management-of-ami Sedation DiazeRam Lorazepam Reassurance Quiet surroundings. Diet Liquids for 1St 12 hours. Fat <30 % of total calories, carbohydrate – 50% of total calories, […]

Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) Causes and Risk factors for Ischemic Heart Disease

Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) ischemic heart disease (IHO) is a disease of the heart due to a deficiency of supply of blood, oxy­gen and nutrients to the heart. Ischemic heart disease occurs when there is imbal­ance between supply (of blood, oxygen, nutrients) and demand (increased demand, less supply). Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) Causes Atherosclerosis -is […]

Ischemia Myocardial ischemia(MI) ECG and effects of ischemia

Ischemia Types Effects of Ischemia, Myocardial ischemia(MI) ECG ,vertebrobasilar ischemia and other metabolic changes A temporary deficiency of blood flow to an organ or tissue, Normal muscle contraction and relaxation af­fected Angina pectoris has been considered the cardinal symptom of myocardial ischemia for more than two centuries.   LVF (left ventricular failure) Papillary muscle dysfunction […]

PRESENTATIONS OF ischemic heart disease(IHD)

PRESENTATIONS OF ischemic heart disease (IHD) Angina pectoris, acute MI or death may be the First presentation of IHD. Stable Angina Pectoris stable angina pectoris is chest pain due to coronary :; ischemia which is of very short duration and easily -relieved (within 5-10 minutes) by simple measures like rest. Exercise testing or ambulatory monitoring […]

Ischemic Heart Disease Physical Examination Lab Examination and Family history

Ischemic Heart Disease Physical Examination Lab Examination and Family history of premature IHD   Unstable Angina     Unstable angina is angina pectoris with typical char­acter of pain but certain atypical features like: It occurs at rest and lasts more than 10 minutes .2/. It is of new onset within the past 6 wks. It […]

Coronary Angiography -Indications of Coronary Arteriography (Angiography)

  Coronary Arteriography (Angiography) Radio-opaque dye is injected into a peripheral artery and coronary arteries are visualized for any obstruc­tive atherosclerotic lesions. cardiac catheterization was primarily a diagnostic procedure that was used to evaluate ventricular function, and coronary anatomy hemodynamics,. diagnostic catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are done by skin puncture ,under local anesthesia, […]

2D Echocardiography Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography

  2D echocardiography Doppler echocardiography A noninvasive diagnostic method that uses ultrasound to visualize cardiac structures. Shows global or RWMA (Regional Wall Motion Abnor­mality) in infarction and ischemia. in which dobutamine is given to patients to increase the workload of the heart, and then the heart is evaluated with ultrasonic imaging.   Types of echocardiography […]

MYOCARDITIS Physical Examination Symptoms Clinical Manifestations Diagnosis

MYOCARDITIS CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Diagnosis Signs and symptoms Myocarditis is a condition resulting from inflammation of the heart muscle. usually as a consequence of infections (e.g., viruses, Lyme disease, Lyme carditis ,rheumatic fever, trypanosomes, or toxoplasmosis) However, in contrast to adults, the majority of children with myocarditis present with acute or fulminant disease. Myocarditis is cardiac […]

PericardiaI Diseases Diagnosis Causes and Physical findings and PericardiaI Diseases Treatment

PericardiaI Diseases Causes and Treatment — The heart is covered by two protective membranes­ Parietal pericardium – Fibrous outer mem­brane. Visceral pericardium – Serous inner mem­brane. The pericardium is a fibroelastic sac made up of visceral and parietal layers separated by a (potential) space, the pericardial cavity. The functions of the pericardium are: It prevents […]

CARDIAC TAMPONADE Causes with Physical findings and Treatment

CARDIAC TAMPONADE Causes Physical findings and Treatment CARDIAC TAMPONADE may result from injuries to the heart or from cardiac rupture, great vessels,or CARDIAC TAMPONADE may accur  from other conditions that produce large pericardial effusions Cardiac tamponade is characterized by the accumulation of pericardial fluid under pressure and may be acute or subacute A life-threatening condition […]


CHRONIC CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS Constrictive pericarditis — Constrictive pericarditis is the result of scarring and consequent loss of elasticity of the pericardial sac. The normal pericardium is a fibroelastic sac containing a thin layer of fluid that surrounds the heart. After the absorption of ericardial fluid thereis orga­nization of fibrin, serous fluid and granulation tissue In […]

Tricuspid Stenosis and Tricuspid Regurgitation Symptoms Investigations and Treatment

Tricuspid Stenosis and Tricuspid Regurgitation   Symptoms of Tricuspid Stenosis and Tricuspid Regurgitation with Physical findings Treatment     Tricuspid stenosis is an uncommon valvular abnormality that most commonly occurs in association with other valvular lesions. Regurgitation caused not by valvular disorder but by dilatation of ventricles, the great vessels, or valve rings. Tricuspid Regurgitation […]

Pulmonary Hypertension CLASSIFICATION Physical Examination Causes Pulmonary Hypertension Treatment

Pulmonary Hypertension Causes of Pulmonary Hypertension ,Physical Examination and Symptoms of Pulmonary Hypertension with Pulmonary Hypertension Treatment Pulmonary hypertension means an increase in pulmonary artery pressure. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and secondary right ventricular failure. Elevated blood pressures in the pulmonary arteries (above 25-30 mm Hg). Normal pulmonary artery […]

Cardiomyopathy Clinical features Etiology Diagnosis Dilated Hypertrophic Restrictive cardiomyopathy with Treatment

Cardiomyopathy Diagnosis Signs and Symptoms CARDIOMYOPATHY Causes Etiology Types Diagnosis of Cardiomyopathy  with Treatment Cardiomyopathy Cardiomyopathies are a group of diseases which involve the heart muscles and affect cardiac functions. Any disease that affects the heart muscle, diminishing cardiac performance There is primary involvement of heart muscles. There is no evidence of any heart disease […]

Heart Failure Causes Symptoms NYHA classification with Heart Failure Treatment

  Heart Failure Heart failure is a state wherein the heart is un­able to pump blood adequately to meet the needs of all the tissues and organs of the body at nor­mal pressures.   Heart Failure Definition —     Inability of the heart to circulate blood effectively enough to meet the body’s metabolic needs. […]

Cor pulmonale Causes of Cor pulmonale Symptoms of COR PULMONALE and Treatment

  Cor pulmonale Causes of Cor pulmonale Symptoms with Types and Treatment  — Cor pulmonale is enlargement of right ventricle . secondary to diseases of lungs, thorax, pulmo­nary ventilation or pulmonary circulation. Living for an extended period at a high altitude also may cause this condition. Cor pulmonale is the alteration of right ventricular structure […]

Infective Endocarditis Causes of Infective Endocarditis TREATMENT of Infective Endocarditis

  Infective Endocarditis  CLINICAL FEATURES of infective Endocarditis (IE) causes the Infective Endocarditis With TREATMENT  of infective Endocarditis (IE) Proliferation of microorganisms on the endot­helium of heart results in infective endocardi­tis. The typical feature–of the· disease is vegetation. Endocarditis may be caused by any microorganism;  of streptococci or staphylococci; Haemophilus spp. or other HACEK bacteria […]

Ficus Religiosa Pipal tree Ayurvedic Medicine Ficus religiosa Pipal Medicine of gastric problems diabetes diarrhea

Ficus religiosa Pipal tree Ayurvedic Medicine Ficus religiosa Pipal tree or Pippala Ayurvedic Medicine of gastric problems diabetes, inflammatory disorders, asthma, diabetes, diarrhea, epilepsy, infectious and sexual disorders Ficus religiosa Pippala, Pipal tree Is One of the most religious plant in INDIA Hindu camunity, this is commonly called by Pippala and it is almost available in […]

Mitral Stenosis Causes Symptoms of Mitral Stenosis Etiology of Mitral Stenosis Treatment of Mitral Stenosis

  Mitral Stenosis Treatment of Mitral Stenosis causes and Etiology of Mitral Stenosis with Symptoms of Mitral Stenosis Mitral Stenosis is narrowing of the mitral valve due to which there is a restriction of blood flow from left atrium to left ventricle. It is more com­mon in females. Mitral stenosis (MS), resulting from thickening and […]

Mitral Regurgitation (MR)Causes Symptoms Mitral Regurgitation Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation ACC/AHA guideline

  Mitral Regurgitation (MR) Causes, Mitral Regurgitation (MR) Symptoms ,ACC/AHA guideline for Mitral Regurgitation (MR) Physical findings Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation Mitral regurgitation is the regurgitation or back flow of blood from left ventricle to left atrium during left venticular systole. It is also called Mitral incompetence. A backward flowing, as in the return of […]

Ventricular Tachycardia VT Diagnosis Causes Clinical features with Treatment

  Cardiac Arrhythmias —   Ventricular Tachycardia VT – Three or more consecutive ventricular ectopic complexes (duration greater than 120 ms) occurring at a rate of 100 to 250 beats per minute.   Diagnosis of VT (ventricular tachycardia)     At least 3 consecutive wide QRS complexes Rate at least 100 per minute Usually rhythm […]

Supraventricular tachycardia and Ventricular fibrillation Causes Diagnosis with Treatment

  Cardiac Arrhythmias – Supraventricular tachycardia and Ventricular fibrillation — SVT. A rapid, regular tachycardia in which the pacemaker is found in the sinus node, the atria, or the atrioventricular junction, i.e., above the ventricles   Distinguishing features of SVT with wide QRS from VT — Triphasic QRS – rsR or qRs . Initial deflection […]

SINUS Bradycardia Bradyarrhythmia Symptoms Causes Diagnosis with Treatment

  BRADYARRHYTHMIAS Sinus BRADYCARDIA When the sinus rate is less tha – 60 beats per minute it is called sinus bradycardia,Trained athletes and people doing hard labour, elderly individuals may have resting rate less than 50 beats per mmute. The pacemaker of the heart is the sinoatrial node (SA node). The SA node lies at […]

Sick Sinus Syndrome SSS Symptoms Causes Diagnosis with Treatment

Arrhythmia Sick Sinus Syndrome The sick sinus syndrome is a presentation with dizziness, confusion, fatigue, syncope, and heart failure caused by SA node dysfunction. Several electrocardiographical abnormalities caused by a malfunction of the sinoatrial node of the heart, in which there are episodes of tachycardia alternating with episodes of heart block or severely decreased heart […]

PSVT (Paroxysmal supraventricular Tachycardia) TACHYARRHYTHMIAS SINUS TACHYCARDIA

  TACHYARRHYTHMIAS PSVT Paroxysmal supraventricular Tachycardia DIAGNOSIS with Treatment       SINUS TACHYCARDIA —     Heart rate exceeds 100 beats/min Gradual onset and offset Normal PQRST.   PSVT Proxysmal supraventricular Tachycardia —     Features of PSVT     There is sudden onset and offset of very fast regular heart beats (120 – […]

Atrial fibrillation Causes and Treatment Indications of DC Cardioversion

  Atrial fibrillation TACHYARRHYTHMIAS Indications of DC Cardioversion — Cardiovasculer examination, RRHYTHMIAS, Sinus Tachycardia     Atrial fibrillation is recognized by : ·Absence of P waves ·P waves re laced by fibrillatory waves or undulating baseli~at frequency 350-600 perminute R waves irregularly irregular and of varying amplitude QRS normal.     Causes Of Atrial fibrillation : […]

Sinus Tachycardia and Sinus Bradycardia Definition Causes and Treatment

Sinus Tachycardia and Sinus Bradycardia General idea with definition and causes and Treatment   Sinus Tachycardia Definition — Sinus tachycardia is a heart rate more than 100 beats/min.   Causes of Sinus Tachycardia Fever, thyrotoxicosis, exercise, anaemia, lack of activity, hypertension etc. Drugs like Sorbitrate, .Nifedipine, nasal decongestants drops, atropine eye drops etc can cause […]

Cardiac Arrhythmias Definitions Mechanisms and Methods for Detecting Arrhythmias

Cardiac Arrhythmias Types and Definitions Mechanisms with Methods for Diagnosis Arrhythmias   Mechanisms of arrhythmias Problems of impulse formation i.e. automaticity. Problems of impulse conduction i.e. Block I Reentry.   Methods for Detecting Arrhythmias Is to monitor the ECG, Transtelephonic monitoring, Holter monitoring, invasive ECG recordings. Transtelephonic monitoring Cardiac monitoring in which the patient uses a […]

Palpation of Precordium and Percussion of the Heart

In Cardiovascular examination the most important part are Palpation and Percussion   Palpation of Precordium The location, amplitude and character of cardiac im­pulse is noted. The normal LV apex is located in left fifth intercostal space in the midclavicular line. Normal apex is a sys­tolic outward thrust which is localized and less than 2.5 cm […]

Examination of the Cardiovascular System

Now we are starting the series of – Cardiovascular System The general appearance should be evaluated. <!–b1db3ec7868a4a669c04fa81b506a3b1–> A patient with low cardiac output looks tired and breathless. [intlink id=”225″ type=”post” /] A patient of pulmonary congestion / pulmonary edema is breathless and respiratory rate is increased. Central cyanosis with clubbing indicates right to left cardiac […]