• n Ayruveda has taken rapid strides over the last decade in realizing people all over the world to probe into basics of physical and psychological heath related problems of fast changing life styles.
  • Countries including India are once again recognizing the importance of science of life i.e Ayurveda and its principles based on Dosha – Dhatu –Mala Vigyan.

Importance of Biochemistry

  • n Bio means life and chem means chyle (Juice) that is the reason why we cannot determine the solid or insoluble part of body substances in Biochemistry.
  • Keeping these limitations in mind of Biochemistry one should design the biochemical test for various body substances especially for dhatus.
  • They should be based on various body fluids chemical analysis or extracts of solid substances for sthirdhatu; which plasma has developed.
  • Number of methods such as electrophoresis; chromatography and ultra centrifugation by which proteins can be separated and identified.

For vaikrit dosha,dushya and mala vevous blood should be used.


  • (ASH.SAM.SU-36)
  • SU.SU.4/18.
  • n We can corelate above conditions with dhatu vriddhi and dhatu kshaya. Dhatu prodoshaja vikara . We also confirm dosha-dushya sammorchana in various disorders.


  • n For rasa dhatu electrolyte balance, albumin and globulin tests,
  • n For rakht dhatu all proteins and cells, acids and enzymes of blood.
  • n For mansa dhatu the myoglobulin, actin and myocin, protein tests for meda.
  • n Lipoproteins and fat analysis for meda,
  • n For asthi dhatu, serum calcium determination,
  • n For maja lipoproteins determination
  • n For shukradhatu semen analysis ,
  • n For Oja immunoglobulins in arterial plasma can be determined.
  • n For upadhatu stanya breast milk analysis can be done.
  • n A corelation study must be done on amount and type of amino acids present in the specimen and snighda-sheetadi properties of dosha,dushya and mala.
  • n For Sthirdhatu ultra-centrifugation technique can be used which separates different molecular sized particles to reveal four main components in normal serum. They may be fractions of micro globulin containing the γ globulin, containing albumin and other proteins and containing various lipoproteins.

Biochemical and other investigations for

Dhatu Pariksha

  • n Therefore plasma and serum can be used for biochemical tests for all the dhatu other than Rakta.For Rakta dhatu whole blood must be used.

Biochemical analysis of Dosha Dhatu Mala In Ayurveda

  • n Rakta (Blood) is very much important in all other dushya (tissues) to determine the various disorders. This is been used for diagnosis since ages.
  • n Therefore one must be able to differentiate shuddha and ashuddha rakta as desribed by ayurvedic acharyas and let the western world understand the concept in terms of biochemistry.
  • n Keeping limitations of Biochemistry in mind one should design the biochemical test for various body substances especially for dhatu.
  • n They should be based on various body fluids chemical analysis or extracts of solid substances for sthirdhatu.
  • n Number of methods such as electrophoresis; immuno chromatography, ultra centrifugation are employed for proteins to be separated and identified.
  • n In various metabolic disorders, plasma protein estimation is more significant. Some proteins are not usually present in considerable amount in normal plasma. But in diseases condition the protein amount may increase or decrease according to the disorder or some new proteins may occur in sera.
  • n In the routine Biochemical tests mostly serum is used and preferred because the blood collection method is simple.
  • n Interference of various proteins is minimized.
  • n The enzyme concentration of the serum is less then the whole blood and clinical significance is more marked in serum or plasma than the whole blood.
  • n Several interesting experiments can be done with the help of Biochemistry. The first step in the laboratory investigation is to collect various types of specimens for accurate results.
  • n The collection of adequate amount of samples under prescribed conditions is just as important as the chemical analysis itself.
  • n We can also design the investigative techniques as to see the effect of pharmacological agents on metabolism by using water therapy ( anupana) diuretics (mutrala dravyas), oral hypoglycemic agents (gudmar), diabetic foods administration . Herbal chemical agents on skin pigmentation (varnya), astringents (kashaya) Emollients (snehana) wound cleaning agents (vranaprakshalane), poisons
  • n (Visha) and anesthetic agents (sangyaharana),alcohol (madya) ,opium ( ahiphen) and drug used in pancha karma etc. especially cholesterol test in snehavicharana must be done.
  • n Plasma after administration of manda, peya, vilepi etc. therapy to cure various disorders or used as laghu, balya food given after therapy. (Cha.chi-3)
  • n Arrangements should be done to reassess various biochemical effects of anupana kalpana in different normal and abnormal conditions of human body (Ash.sam.soo-10 Annapanchanvidhi)
  • n Like wise properties of rasayan and vajikarnandraya are to be analyzed on the basis of amino acid present in it. Assessment of hormones and mmunological assessments are must during the therapy. (Asha.san.soo-12)


  • n For madhurasa of any dhatu updhatu; benedicts analysis is to be done.
  • n For amla rasa estimation of ascorbic acid in any fluid and for katu rasa titration acidity test can be done.
  • n Enzymes and isoenzymes tests,plasma amalyse test is also useful for agnipariksha.

Mala Pariksha

  • n Mala are the end products of digestion and various metabolic reactions. It is continuous process: formed elements are stored and expelled out through the system. All Mala have to excrete out today or tomorrow. Few of them remain for somewhat more period than others in circulation. Therefore they can be detected in any body fluid.
  • n VATA- Nitrogenous gases, which are expelled out through belching and passing flatus.
  • n PURISHA (FAECES)- Other than physical appearance of purisha Pancha gyanendriya pariksha, mainly for rasa pariksha should be done pH test and benedicts test for sugar can be done. For presence of pitta Bile test, Stercobilingen test can be applied.
  • For presences of rakta Occult blood test is better or otherwise we can do microscopic examination.
  • n MUTRA – Litmus paper test, Titration acidity test, Ascorbic acid test, Glucose test in urine can be done.
  • n KLEDA- Urea,uric acid in urine and blood can be detected.


  • n To determine the constituents present in given sample of whole blood / plasma/ serum /extract of faeces muscle or bone like solid substances/ gastric fluids/ other aspirated fluids from various sites of body like pleura, pericardium, joints, fluid present in subarachnoid space, spinal cord, synapse, deep arteries in special conditions during cardiac surgery /saliva/breast milk/serum/sweat/ urine/excretions from eye, nose, ear, vagina, urethra etc. taken on swab and there after dissolved in distilled water / alcohol, are taken.
  • n ACIDIC SUBSTANCES determination of pH, acidity test by titration or by Burette test
  • n AGNI – RIA for hormonal assay, enzymes and iso enzymes Analysis for Agni Vinishchaya in arterial blood
  • n PITTA- Gastric analysis Bile test, (acidity test of bile) plasma amylase analysis in venous blood
  • n RAKTA- Protein analysis, electrophoresis for identification of proteins (Hb) and amino acids, Haemopoetins present in rakta (arterial blood) , serum , Iodine, Chlorides and other inorganic salts.
  • n MUTRA-Urine analysis
  • n KLEDA (venous blood), SWEDA, (Swab),KHAMALA (Swab)- Urea, Uric acid analysis.
  • n RAJA (Swab) – Sulphur detection
  • n VATA- Protein analysis by ultrafugation method to detect smaller molecular size amines and neuro- transmitters in capillary blood
  • n KAPHA- Albumin, globulin, large molecules of proteins present in venous blood plasma, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, C.S.F, Sinovial fluid, mucus of saliva etc.
  • n RASA- Serum electrolytes, carbohydrates (blood glucose) triglycerides, all proteins analysis in arterial blood and chromatography for the quantification of soluble proteins.
  • n MANSA- Myoglobulin, actin, myosin analysis of arterial blood. Biopsy of unchanged proteins.
  • n MEDA- Lipid profile (serum cholesterol) of arterial blood
  • n ASTHI- Serum calcium of arterial blood
  • n MAJJA- Lipoproteins of arterial blood
  • n SHUKRA- Semen analysis and protein analysis of semen chrmotography and serum for healing wound (for sarvadehic shukra
  • n OJA- Immunoglobulins analysis and chromatography of blood aspirated form cardiac artery and amniotic fluid during first two weeks of gestational period.
  • n STANYA- breast milk analysis
  • n VASA- Fat analysis of adipose tissues
  • Paper Chromatography for separation of proteins to distinguish two substances and color chromatography for quantification of proteins must be done.
  • n Nevertheless concept of Jeevatma is nothing but genetics in ayurveda . Medicos must realize the importance of these concepts as Biochemical substances and not as spiritual things. This approach to study the available knowledge of ayurveda will provide much more information for bioengineering researches in genetic sciences.
  • n Now a days some computerized methods are being used in such conditions. In my opinion we have to make them more reliable and more convenient. Ayurvedic physician are not used to such laboratory techniques.
  • n All post graduate institutes must be equipped with the biochemical laboratory and the availability of services of technicians and Biochemist.
  • n Separate syllabus must be included in the curriculum.


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