Details Descriptions About :: Gastritis

 Gastritis, an inflammation of the gastric mucosa, may be acute or chronic. Acute gastritis produces mucosal reddening, edema, hemorrhage, and erosion; this benign, self-limiting disease is usually a response to local irritants. Chronic gastritis is common among elderly persons and those with pernicious anemia. It’s characterized by progressive cell atrophy and commonly occurs as chronic atrophic gastritis (inflammation of all stomach mucosal layers and reduced numbers of chief and parietal cells). Acute or chronic gastritis can occur at any age.

Causes for Gastritis

Causes Acute gastritis Habitually ingested irritants, such as hot peppers, alcohol Drugs, such as aspirin, other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, cytotoxic agents, caffeine, corticosteroids, antimetabolites, phenylbutazone Poisons, such as DDT, ammonia, mercury, carbon tetrachloride, corrosive substances Bacterial endotoxins, such as staphylococci, Escherichia coli, salmonella Physiological stress, such as surgery, head trauma, renal failure, hepatic failure, or respiratory failure Chronic gastritis Helicobacter pylori infection Pernicious anemia Peptic ulcer disease Renal disease Diabetes mellitus

Pathophysiology Gastritis

Pathophysiology Gastritis is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach. In acute gastritis, the protective mucosal layer is altered. Acid secretion produces mucosal reddening, edema, and superficial surface erosion. In chronic gastritis, progressive thinning and degeneration of gastric mucosa occur. In either form, as mucus membranes become more eroded, gastric juices, containing pepsin and acid, come into contact with the erosion and an ulcer forms. Pernicious anemia is often associated with atrophic gastritis, a chronic inflammation of the stomach resulting from degeneration of the gastric mucosa. In pernicious anemia, the stomach can no longer secrete intrinsic factor, which is needed for vitamin B12 absorption.

Signs and symptoms Gastritis

Signs and symptoms Epigastric discomfort Indigestion, cramping Anorexia Nausea, hematemesis, and vomiting Coffee-ground emesis or melena if GI bleeding present Grimacing Restlessness Pallor Tachycardia Hypotension Abdominal distention, tenderness, and guarding Normoactive to hyperactive bowel sounds

Diagnostic Lab Test results

Diagnostic test results Occult blood tests reveal blood in vomitus or stools (or both) if the patient has gastric bleeding. Complete blood count shows decreased hemoglobin level and hematocrit. Urea breath test is positive for H. pylori. Upper GI endoscopy reveals gastritis when endoscopy is performed within 24 hours of bleeding. Biopsy reveals inflammatory process.

Treatment for Gastritis

Treatment Elimination of the cause Bland diet Antacids, histamine antagonists, proton pump inhibitors Prostaglandins Vitamin B12 Antibiotics Blood replacement Iced saline lavage, possibly with norepinephrine Angiography with vasopressin Surgery—vagotomy, pyloroplasty, partial or total gastrectomy Clinical Tip Simply avoiding aspirin and spicy foods may relieve gastritis.

 

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