Risk factors for adverse prognosis in hyperten­sion  with Etiology

  • Non-whites
  • Youth (young) and Males
  • Diastolic blood pressure consistently more than 115 mmHg
  • Smoking and Alcoholism
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Obesity
  • End organ damage
  • Cardiac enlargement
  • ECG showing ischemia or LVH with strain pattern
  • MI (myocardial infarction) 9< CHF (heart failure)
  • Eyes – retinal haemorrhages, exudates and papilledema
  • Renal – insufficiency and failure
  • Nervous system- CVA (cerebrovascular acci­dent).
Etiology hypertension

Risk factors in hypertension for adverse prognosis with Etiology of hypertension

Etiology of hyperten­sion

  1. Essential hyperten­sion – no known cause
  2. Secondary hyperten­sion
  • – Renal hypertension
  • – Endocrine:
    • Adrenal disease
    • Acromegaly
    • Hypercalcemia
    • – Oral contraceptive
  • – Coarctation of Aorta.
  • Genetics in Hypertension
  • There is familial aggregation“.
  • There is multifactorial inheritance of hyperten­sion.
  • Alcohol intake – More the alcohol intake, more the blood pressure.
  • Family size – larger the family size, more the blood pressure.
  • Overcrowding and crowds increase blood pressure.
  • Environment and hypertension Environmental stress can cause hypertension.
  • Occupational stress / Work / Job stress is an important cause of hypertension in modern life.
  • Obesity is also part of metabolic syndrome (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance).


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