Details About Generic Salt ::  Diazepam

Main Medicine Class:: Antianxiety,Benzodiazepine,Anticonvulsant   

(DIE-aze-uh-pam)
Valium, Diastat, Apo-Diazepam, Diazemuls, E Pam, Meval, Novo-Dipam, PMS-Diazepam, Valium Roche, Vivol
Class: Antianxiety/Benzodiazepine/Anticonvulsant

 

Drugs Class ::

 Action Potentiates action of GABA; inhibitory neurotransmitter, resulting in increased neural inhibition and CNS depression, especially in limbic system and reticular formation.

Indications for Drugs ::

 Indications Management of anxiety disorders; relief of acute alcohol withdrawal symptoms; relief of preoperative apprehension and anxiety and reduction of memory recall; treatment of muscle spasms, convulsive disorders and status epilepticus. Unlabeled use(s): Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome; relief of panic attack.

Drug Dose ::

 Route/Dosage

Individualize dosage; increase cautiously. ADULTS & CHILDREN: Usual recommended dose IM/IV 2 to 20 mg, depending on indication and severity. In acute conditions injection may be repeated within 1 hr, but q 3 to 4 hr is usually satisfactory. Dosage and route vary with indication and age. Usual daily dose: CHILDREN ³ 6 MO: PO 1 to 2.5 mg tid or qid initially; increase gradually as needed and tolerated.

Anxiety

ADULTS: PO 2 to 10 mg bid to qid. IM/IV 2 to 10 mg; repeat in 3 to 4 hr if needed.

Acute Alcohol Withdrawal

ADULTS: PO 10 mg tid to qid first 24 hr; then 5 mg tid to qid prn. IM/IV 10 mg initially; then 5 to 10 mg in 3 to 4 hr if needed.

Skeletal Muscle Spasm

ADULTS: PO 2 to 10 mg tid to qid. IM/IV 5 to 10 mg initially; then 5 to 10 mg in 3 to 4 hr if needed. Larger doses may be necessary in tetanus.

Tetanus

ADULT: CHILDREN £ 5 yr: IM/IV 5 to 10 mg; repeat q 3 to 4 hr prn. InFANTS & CHILDREN 1 MO to 5 YR: IM/IV 1 to 2 mg slowly; repeat q 3 to 4 hr prn.

Anticonvulsant Adjunct

ADULTS: PO 2 to 10 mg bid to qid. ELDERLY OR DEBILITATED PATIENTS: Initial dose: PO 2 to 2.25 mg qd to bid; increase gradually.

Status Epilepticus and Severe Recurrent Convulsive Disorders

ADULTS: IM/IV (IV preferred) 5 to 10 mg initially; then 5 to 10 mg at 10 to 15 min intervals (maximum total dose 30 mg). If needed, repeat in 2 to 4 hr. Dizac: Extreme caution must be exercised with chronic lung disease or unstable cardiovascular status. CHILDREN £ 5 YR: IM/IV 1 mg q 2 to 5 min (maximum total dose 10 mg). If needed, repeat in 2 to 4 hr. INFANTS & CHILDREN 1 MO to 5 YR: IM/IV 0.2 to 0.5 mg slowly q 2 to 5 min (maximum total dose 5 mg).

Sedation/Muscle Relaxation

ADULTS: IM/IV 2 to 10 mg/dose q 3 to 4 hr as needed. CHILDREN ³ 6 MO: PO 0.12 to 0.8 mg/kg/day in divided doses. IM/IV 0.04 to 0.2 mg/kg/dose q 2 to 4 hr (maximum 0.6 mg/kg in 8 hr period.

Preoperative (Anxiety and Tension)

ADULTS: IM 10 mg before surgery.

Cardioversion (Anxiety and Tension)

ADULTS: IM/IV 5 to 15 mg 10 to 15 min before procedure.

Contraindication ::

 Contraindications Hypersensitivity to benzodiazepines; psychoses; acute narrow-angle glaucoma; shock; coma; acute alcohol intoxication; use in children < 6 mo; lactation.

Drug Precautions ::

 Precautions

Pregnancy: Category D. Avoid drug especially during first trimester due to possible increased risk of congenital malformations. Lactation: Excreted in breast milk. Children: Oral form not recommended in patients < 6 mo; parenteral form not recommended in infants < 30 days. Elderly or debilitated patients: Initial dose should be small and gradually increased. Give with extreme care to elderly patients with limited pulmonary reserve. Dependency: Prolonged use can lead to dependency. Withdrawal syndrome has occurred within 4 to 6 wk of treatment, especially if abruptly discontinued. For discontinuation after long-term treatment, use caution and taper dosage. Parenteral administration: Reserved primarily for acute states. Psychiatric disorders: Not intended for use in patients with primary depressive disorder, psychosis or disorders in which anxiety is not prominent. Renal or hepatic impairment: Observe caution to avoid accumulation of drug. Seizures: Tonic status epilepticus has been precipitated in patients treated for petit mal or variant status. Suicide: Use drug with caution in patients with suicidal tendencies; do not allow patient access to large quantities of drug.

PATIENT CARE CONSIDERATIONS


Drug Side Effects ::

 Adverse Reactions

CV: Cardiovascular collapse; bradycardia; tachycardia; hypertension; palpitations; edema; hypotension; phlebitis or thrombosis at IV sites. CNS: Drowsiness; confusion; ataxia; dizziness; lethargy; fatigue; apathy; memory impairment; disorientation; anterograde amnesia; restlessness; headache; slurred speech; loss of voice; stupor, coma; euphoria; irritability; vivid dreams; psychomotor retardation; paradoxical reactions (eg, anger, hostility, mania, insomnia, muscle spasms). EENT: Visual or auditory disturbances; depressed hearing. GI: Constipation; diarrhea; dry mouth; coated tongue; nausea; anorexia; vomiting. HEMA: Blood dyscrasias including agranulocytosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, neutropenia. HEPA Hepatic dysfunction including hepatitis and jaundice; abnormal LFTs. Dependency/withdrawal symptoms.

Drug Mode of Action ::  

 Action Potentiates action of GABA; inhibitory neurotransmitter, resulting in increased neural inhibition and CNS depression, especially in limbic system and reticular formation.

Drug Interactions ::

 Interactions

Cimetidine, oral contraceptives, disulfiram: May increase effects of diazepam, with excessive sedation and impaired psychomotor function. Digoxin: May increase serum digoxin concentrations. Omeprazole: May increase diazepam levels and enhance effects. Theophyllines: May antagonize sedative effects. Incompatibilities: Diazepam interacts with plastic containers and IV tubing, significantly decreasing availability of drug delivered. Do not mix or dilute with other solutions or drugs in syringe or infusion container.

Drug Assesment ::

 Assessment/Interventions

  • Obtain patient history, including drug history and any known allergies.
  • Monitor BP (lying, standing), pulse rate and respiratory rate. Notify physician of significant change in systolic BP or respiratory depression with concomitant use of narcotic analgesics.
  • Monitor respiratory rate q 5 to 15 min during IV administration.
  • Monitor CBC; blood dyscrasias rarely occur.
  • Monitor liver function during long-term use.
  • Provide sugarless gum or hard candy and frequent sips of water to relieve dry mouth.
  • Assess level of anxiety, what precipitates anxiety and if drug controls symptoms.
  • Assess for alcohol withdrawal symptoms: hallucinations, delirium, irritability, agitation, tremors.
  • Assess for seizure control, type, duration and convulstion intensity.
  • Assess mental status: mood, sensorium, affect, sleep pattern, drowsiness dizziness. Report changes in mental status to physician.
  • Observe patient closely for 3 hr following parenteral administration.
  • Assess for physical dependency/withdrawal symptoms: headaches, muscle pain, weakness, nausea and vomiting after long-term use.
  • Assess for suicidal tendencies; restrict amount of drug available to patient.
  • Because of risk of apnea and cardiac arrest with parenteral administration, have resuscitative facilities available.
OVERDOSAGE: SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
  Hypotension, respiratory or cardiac arrest, drowsiness, confusion, somnolence, impaired coordination, diminished reflexes, lethargy, ataxia, hypotonia, hypnosis, coma, death

Drug Storage/Management ::

 Administration/Storage

  • Crush tablets if patient is unable to swallow tablets whole (unless sustained-release).
  • Instruct patient to swallow sustained release capsules whole.
  • Do not give oral form within 1 hr of antacids.
  • Administer oral solution alone or mix with juices or water. When administering Intensol (concentrated oral solution), mix with liquid or semiliquid food such as water, juices, carbonated soda, puddings and applesauce. Use calibrated dropper provided only. Stir Intensol into liquid or food. Entire mixture must be consumed immediately; do not store solution for future use.
  • For IV administration, administer injection slowly—no more than 5 mg (1 ml)/min. Slow injection reduces risk of venous thrombosis, phlebitis, local irritation, swelling and vascular impairment. In children, administer injection slowly over 3 min to reduce risk of apnea and hypersomnolence. Do not use small veins of hand or wrist. Avoid intra-arterial injection or extravasation, which may produce arteriospasm that can lead to gangrene. Do not mix or dilute with other solutions or drugs.
  • Dizac is for IV use only; should not be administered IM or SC.
  • If unable to perform direct IV administration, inject slowly through infusion tubing or Y-site as close as possible to IV site.
  • IV route is preferred in convulsing patients.
  • For IM administration, inject deeply into muscle.

Drug Notes ::

 Patient/Family Education

  • Advise patient not to take within 1 hr of antacid.
  • Remind patient to take with food or milk to decrease GI irritation.
  • Instruct patient to avoid intake of alcoholic beverages or other CNS depressants (sleeping pills, antihistamines, narcotics) unless specifically ordered by physician.
  • Caution patient to avoid sudden position changes to prevent orthostatic hypotension or fainting may occur, especially if patient is elderly.
  • Advise patient that drowsiness is worse at beginning of treatment.
  • Caution patient that drug may be habit-forming and advise that patient discuss use with physician.
  • Encourage patient to carry identification (Medi-Alert bracelet) indicating medication usage if taking drug for seizure control.
  • Advise patient that drug may cause drowsiness.

Disclaimer ::

The Information available on this site is for only Informational Purpose , before any use of this information please consult your Doctor .Price of the drugs indicated above may not match to real price due to many possible reasons may , including local taxes etc.. These are only approximate indicative prices of the drug.

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