Nausea and Vomiting

Nausea is a subjective symptom  disorders that also cause vomiting. Vomiting can result from the stimulation of  four neurologic processes of Nausea and Vomiting — vagal and splanchnic fibers in the viscera, stimulated by distention,infection,or  inflammatory irritation,   vestibular system fibers mediated through muscarinic cholinergic and histamine H1 receptors, sounds, or emotions ,higher central nervous system (CNS) centers where […]

All Types of Fever

Definition of fever — fever is an increasing of body temperature above normal under the influence of thermo regulatory center. Abnormal elevation of temperature. The normal temperature taken orally ranges from about 97.6° to 99.6°F, although there is some individual variation. Rectal temperature is 0.5° to 1.0°F higher than oral temperature. thermometer normal body temp […]

Fever Common Causes And Treatment of Fever

 Fever  — Common Causes And Treatment Clinicians commonly refer to a febrile illness without an initially obvious etiology (sometimes called fever without localizing signs) Fever is an elevation in the core body temperature above the individuals normal range that occurs in conjunction with an increase in the hypothalamia temperature set point. Fever is defined as a […]

Thyroid Disorders Examination and Laboratory tests

Thyroid Disorders Thyroid gland produces 2 hormones – Thyroxine or T4 and Triiodothyronine or T3. Functions of the thyroid hormones are: · They help in cell differentiation · Maintain temperature and metabolism. Disorders of Thyroid are due to 1. Overproduction ofthyroid hormone – Thyrotoxi­cosis 2. Decreased production of thyroid hormone – Hy­pothyroidism 3. Thyroid -nodules […]

Dengue ,treatment, food suppliment

Dengue feaver treatment, and Dengue feaver food suppliment Dengue feaver is basicaly a viral feaver like all other viral disease it is also self limitting but it have strong symptome, there is basicaly no medicine requair for dengue feaver just maintanence of homeostasis like fluide maintanence, temprature controle etc. profilecticaly some antibiotic treatment may be given for […]

Radiographic Basic views Posteroanterior PA view and Anteroposterior AP view

Radiographic x-ray Basic views (PA view) and (AP view) Basic views– There are mainly two basic type of x-ray view , Radiographic examination is the key to the diagnosis of many skeletal abnormalities, Obliteration of normal soft-tissue lines and the presence of a joint effusion are of particular importance, The radiographic findings are then correlated […]

CARDIAC IMAGING echocardiography 2D Echo

CARDIAC IMAGING Very useful.   2D Echo RV infarction: diagnosed by Echo Ventricular aneurysm Pericardial effusion y LV thrombus Wall motion abnormalities are seen Old scars can also cause WMA Decreased LV function is indication for ACE in­hibitor VSD MR is diagnosed easily.   dobutamine stress echocardiography: noninvasive test for coronary artery disease in which […]

2D Echocardiography Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography

  2D echocardiography Doppler echocardiography A noninvasive diagnostic method that uses ultrasound to visualize cardiac structures. Shows global or RWMA (Regional Wall Motion Abnor­mality) in infarction and ischemia. in which dobutamine is given to patients to increase the workload of the heart, and then the heart is evaluated with ultrasonic imaging.   Types of echocardiography […]

Trypanosomiasis Chagas’ disease Causes Diagnosis TREATMENT with Signs and Symptoms

Trypanosomiasis Chagas‘ disease Causes Diagnosis TREATMENT with Signs and Symptoms African trypanosomiasis — African sleeping sickness, caused by Trypanosoma gambiense, and American trypanosomiasis —A disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by the biting reduviid bug.   The protozoan Trypanosoma is the cause of Chagas’ disease and sleeping sickness. American trypanosomiasis or Chagas‘ disease is […]


SLEEPING SICKNESS OR HUMAN AFRICAN TRY­PANOSOMIASIS (HAT) Inflammation of the white and gray matter of the brain. It is almost always associated with inflammation of the meninges (meningoencephalitis) and may involve the spinal cord (encephalomyelitis). Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is also known as sleeping sickness. There are two forms of the disease, one of which […]

Malaria Fever Signs and Symptoms Clinical findings with Diagnosis Treatment

Malaria and Babesiosis (protozoan )Signs and Symptoms Clinical findings with Diagnosis Treatment Malaria is a protozoan disease. Transmission is by bite of infected Anopheles mos­quito Transmission is by bite of infected Anopheles mos­quito. There are 4 species of the genus Plasmodium causing malaria. · P. falciparum · P. vivax · P. ovale · P. malariae. […]

FALCIPARUM Malaria fever in Different Conditions and Complications Signs and Symptoms

  FALCIPARUM MALARIA Pregnant women have an increased susceptibility to malaria infection. Malarial infection of the placenta by sequestration of the infected red blood cells leading to low birth weight and other effects.   FALCIPARUM Malaria fever   There are four types of malaria caused by the protozoan parasite This fulminant disease often produces coma, […]

Chikungunya Virus Infection Diagnosis Clinical Signs and Symptoms withTreatment

Chikungunya Virus Infection An alphavirus, typically found inSoutheast Asia, or Africa  that can be transmitted to humans by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. After an incubation period of about a week, headache, nausea, vomiting, the virus produces high fevers, and severe joint pain, usually in the wrists or ankles. Chikungunya Virus Infection   Chikungunya Virus   pathogenesis of Chikungunya — […]

Helminthic NEMATODES Round Worms Tissue Nematodes TRICHINELLOSIS Diagnosis Treatment

Helminthic Infections Cestodes NEMATODES (Round Worms) Cestodes NEMATODES (Round Worms) Nematodes are elongated and symmetrical round worms. They are classified as intestinal or tissue nematodes. Helminthic Infections Tissue Nematodes TRICHINELLOSIS It develops after ingestion of meat containing cysts of Trichinella, like pork or other meat. Infections are usually mild and asymptomatic. Heavy infections can cause enteritis, periorbital […]

Ancylostoma Duodenale HOOKWORM Strongyloides Stercoralis Diagnosis Treatment

ANCYLOSTOMA DUODENALE, NECATOR and STRONGYLOIDES STERCORALIS Hookworm infections are common in the tropics and subtropics, Species of hookworm that commonly infests humans, causing ancylostomiasis; widely found in temperate regions. Ancylostoma caninum and Ancylostoma braziliense: Species of hookworm that infests dogs and cats and may cause cutaneous larva migrans in humans.   Ancylostoma Duodenale HOOKWORM Sanitary practices […]

Trichuris Trichura Whip Worm and Enterobius Vermicularis Pin Worm Diagnosis Treatment

TRICHURIS TRICHURA (WHIP WORM) ,ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS (PIN WORM OR THREAD WORM) Diagnosis and Treatment TRICHURIS TRICHURA (WHIP WORM) It is found worldwide. Two of the most common nematode infections worldwide are pinworm, which is caused by Enterobius vermicularis, and whipworm, which is caused by Trichuris trichiura Trichuris Trichura Whip Worm   Infective stage Trichuris Trichura […]

Dengue fever Dengue haemorrhagic fever Diagnosis Signs and symptoms Treatment

Dengue Classical dengue fever Dengue haemorrhagic fever Diagnosis Signs and symptoms Treatment   Dengue fever Dengue haemorrhagic fever Diagnosis Signs and symptoms Treatment   Dengue viruses are arboviruses which infect hu­mans and cause disease.   Dengue viruses are arboviruses which infect hu­mans and cause disease   Dengue infection may be 1. Asymptomatic 2. Classical dengue […]

AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Diagnosis Signs and Symptoms with Treatment

AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) Transmission of HIV Clinical features and Course of HIV infection AIDS is an advanced stage of HIV infection with symp­toms and opportunistic infections, with the CD4 cell count below 200 cells / IJL. Most AIDS patients are typical progressors and have a median survival time of 10 years. Some AIDS pa­tients may have […]

Infections PLAGUE Caused by Gram-Negative Yersinia pestis Species with diagnosis Treatment Signs

All about Bacterial Infections PLAGUE Caused by Gram–Negative Yersinia pestis SPECIES Gram–Negative Yersinia pestis SPECIES with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Any widespread contagious disease associated with a high death rate.  An often fatal disease caused by Yersinia pestis; the natural hosts are ground squirrels, wild rodents and rats, and the vector is the rat flea. Bacterial InfectionsPLAGUE […]

Infections CHOLERA Caused by Vibrio cholerae with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms

All about Bacterial Infections BRUCELLOSIS and CHOLERA Caused by Gram–Negative Vibrio cholerae Gram–Negative Vibrio cholerae with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms An acute infection involving the entire small intestine, marked by profuse, watery, secretory diarrhea. Without treatment, the severe loss of fluids and electrolytes can cause dehydration and vascular collapse. The incubation period is from a […]

HYPER ACIDITY Caused by H.pylori Gram-Negative diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by  HELICOBACTER PYLORI  Gram–Negative HELICOBACTER PYLORI with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION A motile, spiral, gram-negative bacterium that causes peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. It is treated with combined antibiotics and agents to block gastric acid secretion Helicobacter pylori, also known as H. pylori, is a bacterium that […]

Bacterial Infections DIPHTHERIA Causes Diagnosis Treatment with Signs and Symptoms

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram-Positive Corynebacterium diphtheriae with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Diphtheria (from the Greek word for leather which refers to the tough pharyngeal membrane that is the clinical hallmark of infection) is an acute, communicable disease caused by the gram-positive bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The membrane is created by a thick, […]

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