Aplastic Anaemia Causes Symptomes Diagnosis And Treatment

Aplastic Anaemia Causes Symptomes Diagnosis And Treatment

aplastic anaemia 2
Aplastic Anaemia

 

  • Anaemias associated with normocytic and normochro­mic red cells and low reticulocyte response (reticulo­cyte index less than 2.5) are called hypoproliferative anaemias.
  • These include iron deficiency anaemia, anaemias in chronic inflamation, renal disease, hypometabolic states and anaemias due to bone marrow damage.

APLASTIC ANAEMIA

  • Is a Blood Disorders with low reticulocyte response, on the basis of Blood Cell deficiency it could be of multiple types

 

symptoms of anaemia
symptoms of Aplastic Anaemia

 

  • The hypoproliferative anaemias due to bone marrow damage are the following
  • · Aplastic anaemia
  • · Myelodysplasia
  • · Pure red cell aplasia
  • · Myelophthisis.
  • Aplastic anaemia is pancytopenia with bone mar­row hypocellularity.

The blood picture shows in Aplastic Anaemia

  • · Anaemia – normochromic, normocytic, or mac­rocytic.
  • · Low reticulocyte count.
  • · Pancytopenia – which means Anaemia, Leuko­penia, Thrombocytopenia.
anaemia chart
Causes of Aplastic Anaemia

 

Causes of Aplastic Anaemia

  • · Aplastic anaemia may be due to genetic causes like Fanconi’s anaemia.
  • · Aplastic anaemia may be associated with SLE, hypersplenism, B12 and folate deficiency, infec­tions, alcohol, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, Leish­maniasis, Q fever etc.
  • · Radiation, Hepatitis Non A, Non B, Non C, Parvovirus, and Epstein Barr virus, (HIV) HIV-l may also cause aplastic anaemia.
  • · Drugs which can cause aplastic anaemia are cy­totoxic drugs, chloramphenicol, insecticides, heavy metals, carbamazepine, sulphonamides, estrogens (as in pregnancy), allopurinol, methyldopa, carbimazole, lithium etc. .

Treatment of Aplastic Anaemia

  • · Replacement of hemopoietic cells by stem cell transplant.
  • · Suppression of immune system.
  • · Withdrawal of drugs or toxins causing aplastic anaemia.
  • · Bone marrow transplantation.
  • · Immunosuppression with antilymphocyte globulin (ALG) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG).
  • · Cyclophosphamide.
  • · Androgens.
  • · Supportive care like antibiotics, red cell transfu­sions etc.

MYELOPHTHISIC ANAEMIAS

  • Myelofibrosis or Myeloid metaplasia cause myeloph­thisic anaemias due to invading tumor cells, myco­bacteria(Tuberculosis), fungi, HIV, sarcoidosis etc.

Treatment

  • Antifungal antitubercular(ATT  Treatment) removal of tumor transfusion support.
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