Intestinal Infaction Nematodes ASCARIS Lumbricoides Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment

Intestinal Nematodes Infaction ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES

Ascaris lumbricoides is a species of Ascaris that lives in the human intestine and adults may grow to 12 in. long. Eggs are passed with the feces and require at least 2 weeks’ incubation in the soil before they become infective Ascaris lumbricoides, an intestinal roundworm, is one of the most common helminthic human infections worldwide.

 

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Intestinal Nematodes Infaction ASCARISLUMBRICOIDES
  • It is estimated that more than 1.4 billion people are infected with A. lumbricoides, representing 25 percent of the world population.
  • The highest prevalence of ascariasis occurs in tropical countries where warm, wet climates provide environmental conditions that favor year-round transmission of infection.
  • This contrasts to the situation in dry areas where transmission is seasonal, occurring predominantly during the rainy months

 

ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES is found worldwide.

  • Transmission is enhanced by the fact that individuals can be asymptomatically infected and can continue to shed eggs for years, yet prior infection does not confer protective immunity
  • Infective stage is egg.
  • Route of infection is oral.
  • The gastrointestinal location of worms is small intes­tine.
  • In a 1- to 2-year life span, the female is capable of producing 200,000 eggs per day.
  • The eggs are passed with the feces, and a new cycle is started.
  • Children up to the ages of 12 to 14 are likely to be infected.
  • Adult worm size is 20 – 40 cm.
  • The worm passes through the lungs also.
  • Intestinal obstruction may be a complication in children under 6 years of age.
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Nematodes ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES

Incubation period of Nematodes ASCARIS

  • Transmission occurs mainly via ingestion of water or food (raw vegetables or fruit in particular) contaminated with A. lumbricoides eggs and occasionally via inhalation of contaminated dust.
  • When infections with only female worms occurs, infertile eggs that do not develop into the infectious stage are produced.
  • With male-only worm infections, no eggs are formed.
  • · 65 – 70 days and may survive for one year.
  • Larvae usually reach the lungs by four days after ingestion of eggs.
  • Within the alveoli of the lungs, the larvae mature over a period of approximately 10 days,
  • · Principal symptoms are gastrointestinal and biliaryobstruction.
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Nematodes ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES Life Cycle

 

CLINICAL FEATURES

  • Direct tissue damage The immunologic response of the host to infection with larvae, eggs or adult worms ,
  • Pulmonary and hypersensitivity
  • manifestations Intestinal symptoms Intestinal obstruction
  • Hepatobiliary and pancreatic symptoms
  • Obstruction of an orifice or the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract by an aggregation of worms

 

Diagnosis of Nematodes ASCARIS

Treatment of Nematodes ASCARIS

  • The mainstays of treatment are the benzimidazoles mebendazole and albendazole.
  • Mebendazole (100 mg BID for 3 days or 500 mg as a single dose) is an alternative
  • A single dose of albendazole (400 mg) is effective in almost 100 percent of cases, although reinfection commonly occurs,
  • a single does of either 400 mg albendazole or 200 mcg/kg ivermectin showed similar cure rates (70 percent versus 78 percent) and egg reduction rates (93 percent versus 94 percent) for both therapies,
  • However, they should not be given during pregnancy because of possible teratogenic effects; pyrantel pamoate should be used in pregnancy.
  • Mebendazole,
  • Albendazole,
  • Pyrantel pamoate.