Hypertension Definition Classification

Hypertension

Hypertension is a serious disease which may be asymptomatic. According to JNC-7 normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg and a blood pressure equal to or more than 140 mmHg systolic and 90 mmHg diastolic is hypertension.

  • Etiology is unknown in 90 – 95% cases.
  • Greater than normal tension or tone.

Hypertension 1

Hypertension Definition Classification

2. In adults, a condition in which the blood pressure (BP) is higher than 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic on three separate readings recorded several weeks apart.

Normal blood pressure: systolic <120 mmHg and diastolic <80 mmHg Prehypertension: systolic 120-139 mmHg or diastolic 80-89 mmHg Hypertension:

  •         Stage 1: systolic 140-159 mmHg or diastolic 90-99 mmHg Stage 2: systolic ≥ 160 or diastolic ≥ 100 mmHg

Optimal blood pressure: systolic <120 mmHg and diastolic <80 mmHg Normal: systolic 120-129 mmHg and/or diastolic 80-84 mmHg High normal: systolic 130-139 mmHg and/or diastolic 85-89 mmHg Hypertension:

  •         Grade 1: systolic 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic 90-99 mmHg Grade 2: systolic 160-179 mmHg and/or diastolic 100-109 mmHg Grade 3: systolic ≥ 180 mmHg and/or diastolic ≥ 110 mmHg Isolated systolic hypertension: systolic ≥ 140 mmHg and <90 mmHg

Arterial pressure is regulated by :

  • Peripheral and central adrenergic systems .-
  • Renal
  • Hormonal
  • Vascular factors
  1. Average prevalence is >50% in non-whites.
  2. Frequency of hypertension is more in men.
  3. In females, prevalence increases after age of 50 years.
  4. In the upper class of society blood pressure increases with age.

Hypertension 2

Hypertension Definition Classification

Primary or essential or idiopathic hypertension:
  • Essential Hypertension is arterial hypertension with no definable cause.

Secondary hypertension :

  • When a specific organ or defect is responsible for hypertension, it is called secondary hypertension. The causes are many, in­volving different organs.

Classification of arterial hypertension

1 Systolic hypertension with wide pulse pressure

  • Arteriosclerosis
  • AR
  • Thyrotoxicosis Hyperkinetic circulation Fever
  • AV fistula
  • PDA

2. Systolic and diastolic hypertension

  •  Renal causes
    • Chronic pyelonephritis
    • Acute and chronic glomerulonephritis
    • Polycystic renal disease
    • Renovascular stenosis
  • Arteriolar nephrosclerosis Diabetic nephropathy
  • Renin producing tumors
  •  Endocrinalcauses e
    • Oral contraceptives
  • Adrenocortical hyperfunction
    • Cushing’s disease and syndrome
    • Primary hyperaldosteronism
    • Congenital or hereditary adreno geni­tal syndromes
  • Pheochromocytoma
  • Myxedema
  • Acromegaly
  •  Neurogenic causes
    • Psychogenic
  • b Familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syn­drome)
    • Increased intracranial pressure
  •  Miscellaneous causes
    • Coarctation of aorta
    • Polyarteritis nodoses
    •  Hypercalcemia
    • Drugs like glucocorticoids, cyclosporine
  •  Unknown etiology
    • Essential hypertension
    • Toxaemia of pregnancy
    • Acute intermittent porphyria
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