HypertensionGlycogen Storage Diseases von Gierke disease, Andersen's disease, McArdle's disease. Read more ... » is a serious diseaseAIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Diagnosis Signs and Symptoms with Treatment. Read more ... » which may be asymptomatic. According to JNC-7 normal blood pressureChronic Long-term Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus. Read more ... » is 120/80 mmHg and a blood pressure equal to or more than 140 mmHg systolic and 90 mmHg diastolic is hypertension.
- Etiology is unknown in 90 – 95% cases.
- Greater than normal tension or tone.
2. In adults, a condition in which the blood pressure (BP) is higher than 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic on three separate readings recorded several weeks apart.
Normal blood pressure: systolic <120 mmHg and diastolic <80 mmHg Prehypertension: systolic 120-139 mmHg or diastolic 80-89 mmHg Hypertension:
- Stage 1: systolic 140-159 mmHg or diastolic 90-99 mmHg
Stage 2: systolic ≥ 160 or diastolic ≥ 100 mmHg
Optimal blood pressure: systolic <120 mmHg and diastolic <80 mmHg Normal: systolic 120-129 mmHg and/or diastolic 80-84 mmHg High normal: systolic 130-139 mmHg and/or diastolic 85-89 mmHg Hypertension:
- Grade 1: systolic 140-159 mmHg and/or diastolic 90-99 mmHg
Grade 2: systolic 160-179 mmHg and/or diastolic 100-109 mmHg
Grade 3: systolic ≥ 180 mmHg and/or diastolic ≥ 110 mmHg
Isolated systolic hypertension: systolic ≥ 140 mmHg and <90 mmHg
Arterial pressure is regulated by :
- Peripheral and central adrenergic systems .-
- RenalDiabetic Nephropathy and Renal complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus). Read more ... »
- Vascular factors
- Average prevalence is >50% in non-whites.
- Frequency of hypertension is more in men.
- In females, prevalence increases after age of 50 years.
- In the upper class of society blood pressure increases with age.
Primary or essential or idiopathic hypertension:
- Essential Hypertension is arterial hypertension with no definable cause.
Secondary hypertension :
- When a specific organ or defect is responsible for hypertension, it is called secondary hypertensionSecondary hypertension Renovascular hypertension. Read more ... ». The causesAIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Diagnosis Signs and Symptoms with Treatment. Read more ... » are many, involving different organs.
Classification of arterial hypertension
1 Systolic hypertension with wide pulse pressure
- Thyrotoxicosis Hyperkinetic circulation FeverThyrotoxic crisis or Thyroid storm. Read more ... »
- AV fistula
- PDAPatent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) Clinical features Diagnosis with Treatment. Read more ... »
2. Systolic and diastolic hypertension
- Renal causes
- ChronicChronic Hepatitis Classification viral hepatitis Clinical features and Treatment. Read more ... » pyelonephritis
- AcuteAIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Diagnosis Signs and Symptoms with Treatment. Read more ... » and chronic glomerulonephritis
- Polycystic renal disease
- Renovascular stenosis
- Arteriolar nephrosclerosisVascular Diseases of the Kidney Management Treatment. Read more ... » Diabetic nephropathyDiabetic Nephropathy and Renal complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus). Read more ... »
- Renin producing tumors
- Endocrinalcauses ‘e
- Adrenocortical hyperfunction
- Cushing’s disease and syndromeMetabolic,Insulin Resistance Syndrome X Causes Symptoms. Read more ... »
- Primary hyperaldosteronism
- Congenital or hereditary adreno genital syndromes
- PheochromocytomaPheochromocytoma Clinical Features Diagnosis Treatment. Read more ... »
- AcromegalyGrowth and Development Disorders GHD Diagnosis Treatment. Read more ... »
- Neurogenic causes
- b Familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome)
- Increased intracranial pressure
- Miscellaneous causes
- Coarctation of aorta
- PolyarteritisVasculitis Syndrome Causes Differential Diagnosis Symptoms and Treatment. Read more ... » nodoses
- HypercalcemiaPrimary Hypertension due to Endocrine adrenal Hypertension Adrenogenital syndrome Oral Contraceptives. Read more ... »
- Drugs like glucocorticoidsAdrenal Gland Steroids. Read more ... », cyclosporine
- Unknown etiology
- Essential hypertension
- Toxaemia of pregnancy
- Acute intermittent porphyriaPorphyrias Inherited disorders Causes Classifications Diagnosis and Treatment. Read more ... »