Disease of Joints and Musculoskeletal Disorders OSTEOARTHRITIS and GOUT

Disease of Joints and Musculoskeletal Disorders OSTEOARIRITIS Also called degenerative joint disease. Hip osteoarthritis is more common in men and small joints and knee OA is more common in women. There is damage to cartilage, remodeling and hyper­trophy of bone. There is bone and muscle wasting. OSTEOARIRITIS Clinical Features · There is deep pain in […]

Poisoning And Antidotes In Children

Poisoning And Antidotes In Children   some useful important poisioning in children , and antidotes of them, 1. Amphetamines Poisoning (Toxic dose 50mg) Chlorpromazine 1mg/kg I.M. or IV. Treatment should be started if ingestion is >2mg 2. Anticholinergics Poisoning Give physostigmine 0.02mg/kg/dose, (eg. Atropine, belladonna) upto max. 2mg LV., S.C. or I.M. till desired effect […]

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) and Pyelonephritis Clinical Presentations Treatment

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) and Pyelonephritis Urinary Tract infections may be : 1. Lower tract infection – Urethritis and cystitis 2. Upper tract infection – Acute pyelonephritis, prostatitis, intrarenal and perinephric abscesses. Acute pyelonephritis is a syndrome caused by an infection of the renal parenchyma and renal pelvis, often producing localized flank or back pain combined […]

Tubulointerstitial Diseases of the Kidney Causes Treatment

Tubulointerstitial Diseases of the Kidney Primary tubulointerstitial diseases of the kid­neyare characterized by abnormalities of struc­ture and function of tubules and the interstitium. The glomeruli and renal vasculature are involved to a Jesser extent. The biopsy specimens and the urine sediments do not help in diagnosis. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is most often induced by […]

Tubular Diseases of the Kidney Types Clinical Features Diagnosis with Treatment

Tubular Diseases of the Kidney The tubular diseases of the kidney have various pre­sentations. POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease This is a relatively common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The kidneys are enlarged with multiple cysts. The cysts contain straw-colored or hemorrhagic fluid. The cysts are spherical and may be even […]

Sepsis (Septic Shock) Definition Diagnosis and Pathophysiology

Sepsis & Septic Shock Sepsis is a clinical syndrome characterized by systemic inflammation due to infection. Whenever there is infection there is a reaction from host involving various responses. Systemic responses to infection: · Fever · Hypothermia · Tachypnea · Tachycardia. Sepsis DEFINITIONS There is a continuum of severity ranging from sepsis to severe sepsis […]

Nephrotic Syndrome Symptoms Causes Treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic Syndrome   Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by pro­teinuria > 3 to 3.5 g / 24 hrs., Associated with many types of kidney disease hypoalbumin­emia, edema, hyperlipidemia, Iipiduria, and hy­percoagulability. Nephrotic syndrome is a dis­ease of glomerular basement membrane, . podocyte-slit diaphragm. A condition marked by increased glomerular permeability to proteins, resulting in massive loss […]

Dialysis Indications Complications and Dialysis for Renal Failure

Dialysis for Renal Failure Dialysis is a procedure for replacement of renal function to treat renal failure. Dialysis prolongs the life of ESRD (End Stage Renal Disease) patients. The leading causes of ESRD are diabetes mellitus, hypertension, glomerular nephritis, polycystic kidney disease and obstructive uropathy. patients with acute renal failure or acute kidney injury (AKI) […]

Shock Presentation Risk Factors Pathogenesis Management Treatment

Shock Shock is a clinical syndrome due to inadequate tissue perfusion. A clinical syndrome marked by inadequate perfusion and oxygenation of cells, tissues, and organs, usually as a result of marginal or markedly lowered blood pressure. Shock is the physiologic state characterized by significant reduction of systemic tissue perfusion, resulting in decreased tissue oxygen delivery. […]

Primary Hypertension due to Endocrine adrenal Hypertension Adrenogenital syndrome Oral Contraceptives

Endocrine Hypertension adrenal Hypertension primary hyperaldosteronism there is sodium retention ion with loss of potassium. So there is natremia and hypokalemia with hypertension. diagnosis is by serum K+ level estimation. hyperaldosteronism may be due to a tumor Iateral adrenal hyperplasia. The tumor may be removed and the hypertension curable. diseasese patients of hypertension are not […]

Amalaki Emblica officinalis Ayurvedic Medicine of Raktapitta Amlapitta Prameha

Amalaki  Emblica officinalis  (Fam. Euphorbiaceae), Ayurveda Drug small or medium sized tree, found in mixed deciduous forests, ascending to 1300 m on hills and cultivated in gardens and homeyards.         LATIN NAME — Emblica officinalis Family — Euphorbiaceae SYNONYMS Amalaki  Emblica officinalis – Sanskrit    :    Amalaka, Amtaphala, Dhatr¢phala Assamese    :    Amlaku, Amlakhi, Amlakhu […]

Causes and Complications of Ascites

Ascites Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Management — Ascites is presence of free fluid in the abdomen (peritoneal cavity). Symptoms of ascites are Bloating, fullness in abdomen, Increased pressure, Indigestion, Stretching, pulling, Localized pain, Low back pain, Heart burn, Dyspnea, orthopnea, tachypnea, Hernias, etc. Defination of ascites —  In medical words Ascites is the accumulation of fluid (most commonly serous fluid, which is a light yellow […]


ABDOMINAL PARACENTESIS / ASCITIC TAP /aspiration of peritoneal fluid– paracentesis   Indications for paracentesis-– · Ascites · Cirrhosis · CHF · Abdominal tuberculosis · Abdominal malignancy · Pancreatitis. Method of paracentesis — · The site of puncture is a point midway between the umbilicus and iliac spine or between the pu­bis and umbilicus. The patient […]

Acidosis & Alkalosis physiology with signs and symptoms

Acidosis & Alkalosis Diagnosis And treatment– Acidosis & Alkalosis The arterial blood gases provide information about- 1. Ventilation 2. Oxygenation 3.Acid base status This maintains the pH. Arterial blood gases (ABG) help to diagnose respiratory failure. Respiratory failure may be — 1. Primary oxygenation failure 2. Ventilatory failure 1–. Primary oxygenation failure is indicated by — […]

Causes of jaundice with diagnosis and bio markers

All about jaundice, diagnosis,  jaundice sign and symptoms, with bio markers Yellow discoloration of skin is seen in, Yellow pigment seen all over. This occurs by liver disease or hemolytic disorders. Urine also becomes dark-colored (yellow). due to Excess of bilirubin in the blood is the state of hy­perbilirubinemia. jaundice   Definition Jaundice — It is a yellowish discoloration […]

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