Nausea and Vomiting

Nausea is a subjective symptom  disorders that also cause vomiting. Vomiting can result from the stimulation of  four neurologic processes of Nausea and Vomiting — vagal and splanchnic fibers in the viscera, stimulated by distention,infection,or  inflammatory irritation,   vestibular system fibers mediated through muscarinic cholinergic and histamine H1 receptors, sounds, or emotions ,higher central nervous system (CNS) centers where […]

Fever Common Causes And Treatment of Fever

 Fever  — Common Causes And Treatment Clinicians commonly refer to a febrile illness without an initially obvious etiology (sometimes called fever without localizing signs) Fever is an elevation in the core body temperature above the individuals normal range that occurs in conjunction with an increase in the hypothalamia temperature set point. Fever is defined as a […]


Headaches I. Background of Headaches — Headache is one of the 20 most frequent reasons that cause patients to visit primary care providers in the United States. In a study of 20,468 patients, migraine headache, one of the common causes of recurrent headache, occurred one or more times yearly in 17.6% of women and in 5.7% […]

Insomnia sleep disorders Insomnia causes symptoms diagnosis with Insomnia treatment

Insomnia sleep disorders Insomnia causes symptoms diagnosis with Insomnia treatment The subjective experience of insufficient sleep or of sleep that is not refreshing Insomnia is defined as a persistent AND difficulty initiating  to maintaining sleep. Insomnia Insomnia   Insomnia can be a primary ;, however  insomnia is more commonly a secondary symptom to underlying the environmental, medical, some […]

All Types of Fever

Definition of fever — fever is an increasing of body temperature above normal under the influence of thermo regulatory center. Abnormal elevation of temperature. The normal temperature taken orally ranges from about 97.6° to 99.6°F, although there is some individual variation. Rectal temperature is 0.5° to 1.0°F higher than oral temperature. thermometer normal body temp […]

Diabetic Nephropathy and Renal complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus)

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) Renal Long-Term complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus) Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is responsible for high morbidity and mortality. DN is associated with diabetic retinopathy and hy­perglycemia. DN is due to the effect of growth factors, Angiotensin Il, endothelin, AGEs. A high body mass index (BMI) has been associated with an increased risk of […]

Ophthalmologic Complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus)

Chronic Long-Term Ophthalmologic Complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus) Blindness – occurs due to progressive diabetic Ret­inopathy and macular oedema. Diabetic retinopathy may be non-proliferative and proliferative. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most important causes of visual loss worldwide, and is the principal cause of impaired vision in patients between 25 and 74 years […]

Pheochromocytoma Clinical Features Diagnosis Treatment

All about Pheochromocytoma Clinical Features Diagnosis Treatment Definition A tumor derived from neural crest cells of the sympathetic nervous system that is responsible for about 0.1% to 2% of all cases of hypertension. Catecholamine-secreting tumors that arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic ganglia are referred to as “pheochromocytomas” and “extra-adrenal […]

Sleep Disorders Types Diagnose Of Sleep Disorders

How to Diagnose Different Types of Sleep Disorders sleep disorder: Any condition that interferes with sleep, excluding environmental factors such as noise, excess heat or cold, movement (as on a train, bus, or ship), travel through time zones, or change in altitude. Classifies sleep disorders into eight major categories: Insomnia Sleep related breathing disorders Hypersomnias […]

Diabetes mellitus Types,Causes,Symptoms and Diagnosis

Diabetes mellitus Overview Types Causes,Symptoms with Diagnosis Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders with hyperglycemia. Glucose intolerance is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in glucose and fat metabolism. Overt diabetes is classified as type 1 (T1DM), type 2 (T2DM), and gestational (GDM) A chronic metabolic disorder marked by hyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus (DM) […]

Metabolic,Insulin Resistance Syndrome X Causes Symptoms

INSULIN RESISTANCE SYNDROMES or Syndrome X Overview (metabolic syndrome)- consists of : Insulin resistance Hypertension Dyslipidemias Obesity – central Endothelial dysfunction Accelerated cardiovascular disease. The co-occurrence of metabolic risk factors for both type 2 diabetes and CVD (abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemias, and hypertension) suggested the existence of a “metabolic syndrome”  . A similar profile can […]

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Acute Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus

ACUTE COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES MELLITUS (DKA) DKA is characterized by the triad of hyperglycemia, anion gap metabolic acidosis, and ketonemia. Metabolic acidosis is often the major finding. The serum glucose concentration is usually greater than 500 mg/dL (27.8 mmol/L) and less than 800 mg/dL (44.4 mmol/L)  . However, serum glucose concentrations may exceed 900 mg/dL […]

Chronic Long-term Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus

CHRONIC COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES MEL­LITUS COMMON DISEASES DUE TO DM HYPERGLYCEMIA AND MICROVASCULAR DISEASE — Hyperglycemia is an important risk factor for the development of microvascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes, as it is in patients with type 1 diabetes. Chronic Long-term complications result in morbidity and mor­tality. Children and adolescents with type 2 […]

Grave’s disease Causes and Treatment

Grave’s disease Grave’s disease is thyrotoxicosis, common in females, associated with high iodine intake, occurring between 20 – 50 years of age. Grave’s ophthalmopathy Besides the signs of thyrotoxicosis, there is Grave’s ophthalmopathy. decreased extraocular muscle mobility, and corneal injury, periorbital edema, periorbital and conjunctival inflammation, Ophthalmopathy associated with hyperthyroidism with the clinical characteristics of […]

Thyrotoxic crisis or Thyroid storm

Thyrotoxic crisis or thyroid storm It is a life-threatening hyperthyroidism with fever, seizures, coma, vomiting, diarrhoea, jaundice. A rare but often life-threatening medical emergency resulting from untreated hyperthyroidism Death can occur due to cardiac failure, arrhythmias, hyperthermia. Thyrotoxic crisis Symptoms include : — and fingernails may separate from the nail bed (Plummer’s nails). Cardiovascular findings […]

Thyroid Goiter

GOITER of THYROID Acute thyroiditis is an inflammatory condition of thy­roid due to suppurative infection. enlarged thyroid gland may be caused by thyroiditis, benign thyroid nodules, malignancy, iodine deficiency, or any condition that causes hyperfunction or hypofunction of the gland Types of GOITER aberrant goiter: A supernumerary goiter. acute goiter: A goiter that grows rapidly. […]

Cushing’s Syndrome Symptoms Causes and Treatment

Cushing’s Syndrome Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Cushing’s disease is a hormone disorder caused by high levels of cortisol in the blood disease in which there is ex­cess ACTH secretion, by pituitary adenomas. Cushing’s syndrome is the signs and symptoms that result from prolonged exposure to excessive glucocorticoid hormones. Cushing’s disease: Cushing’s syndrome hormone disorder  […]

Thyroid Disorders Examination and Laboratory tests

Thyroid Disorders Thyroid gland produces 2 hormones – Thyroxine or T4 and Triiodothyronine or T3. Functions of the thyroid hormones are: · They help in cell differentiation · Maintain temperature and metabolism. Disorders of Thyroid are due to 1. Overproduction ofthyroid hormone – Thyrotoxi­cosis 2. Decreased production of thyroid hormone – Hy­pothyroidism 3. Thyroid -nodules […]

Myxedema coma Diagnosis and Treatment

Myxedema coma  This is a state of hypothyroidism with altered con­sciousness or coma, sometimes seizures. There may be hypothermia. It is common in the elderly, and precipitated by seda-‘ tives, antidepressants, pneumonia, CHF, MI, cere­brovascular accidents. marked by neurological dysfunction, by respiratory depression, and by lowered body temperature, blood pressure, blood sugar, and serum sodium. […]

Porphyrias Inherited disorders Causes Classifications Diagnosis and Treatment

Porphyrias The porphyrias are inherited disorders. porphyrias are metabolic disorders caused by altered activities of enzymes within the heme biosynthetic pathway Acute intermittent porphyria: Pyrroloporphyria; neuropsychiatric–abdominal -Aminolevulinic aciduria; neuropsychiatric–abdominal Congenital erythropoietic porphyria: Günther disease; severe dermatologic Hereditary coproporphyria: Neuropsychiatric, occasionally dermatologic Other rare genetic variants reported Porphobilinogen synthetase deficiency: Porphyria cutanea tarda: Dermatologic Protoporphyria: Erythropoietic […]

Diagnostic Methods in Ayurveda Trividh Pariksha

DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN AYURVEDA (Ayurvedic Diagnosis) Trividh Pariksha (Darshan, Sparshan, Prashna). Dashavidh Rog and Rogi pariksha (CH.VI.8) Nidan Panchak. Shatkriyakal. Ashtavidh Rogi Pariksha,( including mala,mutra). Mrittikabhakshana in ‘Pandu’ Roga. 9548054700 Makshikosarpana to body, blood and urine in Madhumeha. Physical examination (rupa,rasa,gandha,sparsha) for body fluids like rakta,shukra, stanya,artava, mutra,sweda and kh-mala. Tailabindu pariksha. There were many […]

Anterior Pituitary Hormones and Disorders

Disorders of Anterior PituitaryHormones The anterior pituitary is called the master gland be­ , it regulates the function of most other endocrine organs. The anterior pituitary gla’nd produces 6 major hor­mones. 1, Prolactin (PRL) 2. Growth hormone (GH) 3. Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) 4. Luteinizing hormone (LH) 5. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 6. Thyroid stimulating hormone […]

Hypopituitarism Diagnosis and Treatment

PRESENTATIONS OF HYPOPITUITARISM This depends on the hormones which are deficient. GH deficiency causes growth disorder and abnor­mal body structure. Gonadotrophin deficiency causes infertility, men­strual and sexual dysfunction and loss of secondary sexual characteristics in men. TSH and ACTH deficiency cause growth retarda­tion, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency. Mineralo­corticoid action is retained. PRL(prolactin) deficiency causes failure of […]

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Diagnosis Symptoms and Treatment

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Diagnosis Symptoms and Treatment Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an au­toimmune disease of unknown etiology in which there is tissue damage by pathogenic antibod­ies. Multisystem autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by fluctuating, chronic course; varies from mild to severe and may be life-threatening (CNS and renal forms) chronic […]

Rheumatoid Arthritis Causes Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment

Rheumatoid Arthritis Causes Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic multisystem disease. There are systemic manifestations. There is persistent inflammatory synovitis. chronic systemic disease marked by inflammation of multiple synovial joints,Involves peripheral joints symmetrically. There is damage of cartilage and bone. Patients typically complain of joint stiffness in the morning rather […]

Systemic Sclerosis Diagnosis Symptoms Treatment Management

 Diagnosis Systemic Sclerosis — Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis [SSc]) is a chronic disease of unknown cause characterized by diffuse fibrosis of skin and visceral organs and vascular abnormalities History Raynaud phenomenon is frequently the initial complaint. Skin thickening, “puffy hands,” and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are often noted early in the disease process. Systemic Sclerosis Physical […]

Sarcoidosis Causes Diagnosis Symptoms and Treatment

Sarcoidosis It is a chronic, multisystem disorder of unknown cause. chronic multisystem disease of unknown etiology, characterized by noncaseating (hard) granulomas and lymphocytic alveol, Sarcoidosis is a noninfectious, multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown cause, commonly affecting young and middle-aged adults. Almost any other organ may be involved, including liver, spleen, lymph nodes, heart, and CNS. […]

Disease of Joints and Musculoskeletal Disorders OSTEOARTHRITIS and GOUT

Disease of Joints and Musculoskeletal Disorders OSTEOARIRITIS Also called degenerative joint disease. Hip osteoarthritis is more common in men and small joints and knee OA is more common in women. There is damage to cartilage, remodeling and hyper­trophy of bone. There is bone and muscle wasting. OSTEOARIRITIS Clinical Features · There is deep pain in […]

Cirrhosis and COMPLICATIONS of CIRRHOSIS with Treatment

Cirrhosis and COMPLICATIONS of CIRRHOSIS with Treatment Cirrhosis Cirrhosis means there is irreversible liver dam­age with extensive fibrosis, and formation of re­generative nodules. There is hepatocyte necrosis with nodular regenera­tion of liver parenchyma. characterized pathologically by liver scarring with loss of normal hepatic architecture and areas of ineffective regeneration Cirrhosis represents a late stage of […]

Biliary Cirrhosis (Primary and Secondary) Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment

Biliary Cirrhosis (Primary and Secondary) Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment BILIARY CIRRHOSIS Biliary cirrhosis occurs due to injury or prolonged obstruction of intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary sys­tem. There is destruction of liver cells and progres­sive fibrosis with biliary obstruction. In primary biliary cirrhosis there is intrahepatic bile ductules obstruction. progressive jaundice, consequences of impaired bile excretion, […]

Portal Hypertension Clinical Features Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment

Portal Hypertension Clinical Features Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment Portal Hypertension Normal pressure in portal vein is 5-10 mmHg. Vascular resistance in hepatic sinusoids is low. Increased pressure in the portal vein caused by an obstruction of the flow of blood through the liver. Portal hypertension is found in diseases such as cirrhosis, Portal hypertension is […]

VARICEAL BLEEDING Clinical features Diagnosis and Treatment

VARICEAL BLEEDING Clinical features Diagnosis and Treatment VARICEAL BLEEDING It results from portal systemic venous collaterals when portal hypertension is more than 12 mmHg. Clinical features,: There is painless hematemesis, tachycardia and even shock. VARICEAL BLEEDING Differential diagnosis : Peptic ulcer and gastritis. Endoscopy is done for proper diagnosis. Variceal bleeding is serious emergency patients […]

Pancreatitis (inflammatory disease of pancreas) Signs and Symptoms Diagnostic Tests

Pancreatitis (inflammatory disease of pancreas) Signs and Symptoms Diagnostic Tests Pancreatic Diseases Pancreatitis is inflammatory disease of pan­creas Various presentations of Pancreatitis : · Hypertriglyceridemia · Vitamin B12 malsorption · Hypercalcemia · Hypocalcemia · Hyperglycemia · Ascites · Pleural effusion · Chronic abdominal pain. Pancreatitis Prognosis: Several techniques are used to determine how well (or how […]

Hepatitis PROPHYLAXIS and Hepatitis TREATMENT and Management

Hepatitis PROPHYLAXIS and Hepatitis TREATMENT and Management Hepatitis PROPHYLAXIS Prevention is through immunization Hepatitis A prophylaxis Passive immunization with IG Active immunization with killed vaccines 1. Passive immunization is given before exposure or during early incubation period. 2. Post exposure prophylaxis – 0.02 ml/kg IgG is given after exposure as soon as possible. It is […]

Abhrak bhasma Satva patan Satva Sodhan and Churnikaran Methods

Abhrak bhasma Satva patan Satva Sodhan and Churnikaran Methods s.o.p of satva bhasma w.s.r to abhrak satva bhasma Pure Abhrak Bhasma,Powdered Abhrak Bhasma Introduction Abhrak bhasma Satva patan Satva Sodhan Pure Abhrak Bhasma,Powdered Abhrak Bhasma § As per the Rasa text Satva bhasma has been claimed to be more efficacious then other Iron Bhasmas for the […]

Management of APH (Antepartum haemorrhage) Abruptio Placentae and Placenta previa (PP)

Management of APH (Antepartum haemorrhage) and ManagementPlacenta previa (PP) Management } b.  Standard management of symptomatic patients with PP ◦ hospitalization with hemodynamic stabilization and continuous maternal and fetal monitoring. ◦ Laboratory studies should be ordered ◦ Steroids should be given to promote lung maturity for gestations between 24 and 34 weeks. ◦ Rho(D) immunoglobulin […]

CONSTIPATION Causes Risk Factors and Constipation Treatment Management

CONSTIPATION Causes Risk Factors and Constipation Treatment Management CONSTIPATION Constipation is a decrease in frequency of passage of stools to less than 3 per week, passage of hard stools, with straining, abdominal fullness and a sense of in­complete evacuation. hard stools, excessive straining, prolonged time spent on the toilet, a sense of incomplete evacuation, and […]

Intestinal Obstruction Symptoms and Treatment of Intestinal Obstruction

Intestinal Obstruction Intestinal obstruction may be mechanical or non mechanical Mechanical obstruction may be adhesions, hernias, diverticulitis, carcinoma, regional enteritis, gall stone obstruction, intussusception. Non-mechanical may be neuromuscular distur­bances leading to ileus. Obstruction may occur in small intestine or large in­testine. Small intestine obstructions are due to adhesions and hernias. Large intestine or colonic obstruction […]

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Symptoms Treatment

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Symptoms Treatment Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBs) is a gastrointes­tinal disorder without any structural pathology, characterized by pain in abdomen, and consti­pation and diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal syndrome characterized by chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of any organic cause. […]

Sukra Kshaya

Sukra Kshaya : – Sukra is closely related with Rasa and Majja Dhatu as it gets nutrition from these DhatusSukrakshaya is characterized by Dourbalya (Weakness), Mukhasosa (dryness of mouth). Pandu (pallor), Sada (depression) Shrama (fatigue), Klaibya (impotency) and Sukra Avisarga (non-ejaculations of semen). Further Caraka says that excessive indulgence in Sexual intercourse leads to Sukrakshaya, […]

Ojas -Para Oja and Apara Oja

Ojas : – It is called as “Sarva Dhatu Sara” (A.S.Su-19/28 with Indu, Su.Su-15/19 with Dalhana, A.H. Su-11/37 with Ad) and is of two types the Para Oja and Apara Oja Heart is the dwelling for Para Ojas. The vessels attached to the heart are the site of other type of the Ojas. As regards […]

Gatatva or Ashrita

Gatatva Gatatva means Ashrita, and in case of Vata it is related to the vitiated Vata, which has name in fusion with particular Dhatu. Due to etiological factors responsible in the vitiation of Dosa shall ought to be utilized in the vitiation of Dusya and thus the innumerable disorders shall be the out come explained […]


KSHINAMATI (Dementia) KSHINAMATI (Dementia) Impairment in the functioning of the Buddhi or Mati is denoted as Kshinamati which is found as clinical feature in the patient of Kampavata Basavrajiyam has considered the Kshinamati as a symptom of Kampavata. Prajna has three components – Dhi, Dhriti and Smriti Dhi – means intellect Dhriti – mean regulation […]