ARKA Calotropis procera

Arka consists of dried leaves of Calotropis procera ,(Fam. Asclepiadaceae), Ayurvedic Medicine for piles and Anal Fistula ,found wild more or less throughout India.

ARKA Calotropis procera 1

ARKA Calotropis procera Ayurvedic Medicine for piles and Anal Fistula

Scientific classification

  • Kingdom:    Plantae
  • (unranked):    Angiosperms
  • (unranked):    Eudicots
  • (unranked):    Asterids
  • Order:    Gentianales
  • Family:    Asclepiadaceae
  • Genus:    Calotropis
  • Species:    C. procera
  • Binomial name — Calotropis procera
ARKA Calotropis procera 2

ARKA Calotropis procera Ayurvedic Medicine for piles and Anal Fistula

SYNONYMS

  • Sanskrit    :    Bhinu, Ravi, Tapana
  • English    :    Madar Tree
  • Gujrati      :    Aakado
  • Hindi        :    Aak, Akavana, Madar
  • Assamese    :    Akan, Akand
  • Bengali    :    Akanda, Akone
  • Kashmiri    :    Acka
  • Malayalam    :    Erikku
  • Marathi    :    Rui
  • Oriya       :    Arakha
  • Punjabi    :    Ak
  • Kannada    :    Ekka, Ekkadagida, Ekkegida
  • Tamil       :    Erukku, Vellerukku
  • Telugu      :    Jilledu
  • Urdu        :    Aak, Madar
ARKA Calotropis procera 5

ARKA Calotropis procera Ayurvedic Medicine for piles and Anal Fistula

DESCRIPTION  and PLACES OF ORIGIN of

 

  • Sub-sessile, 6-15 cm by 4.5-8 cm, broadly ovate, ovate-oblong, elliptic or obovate acute, pubescent when young and glabrous on both sides on maturity.
  • Lamina – dorsiventral with mesophyll differentiated into a palisade and spongy tissue, closely arranged palisade parenchyma present, spongy parenchyma tissues almost radially elongated with intercellular spaces, central cells irregular in shape,upper and lower epidermis covered externally with a thick, striated cuticle, below upper epidermis three rows of elongated,  laticifers and vascular bundles also present scattered in this region
  • Midrib – transverse section through midrib shows an upper and lower single layered epidermis externally covered with thick, striated cuticle, few epidermal cells on both surfaces of leaf elongated to form un i-seriate, 2-3 celled trichomes,
  • epidermal cells cubical and radially elongated, epidermis followed by 3-8 layered collenchyma on both lower and upper surfaces, stele crescent shaped composed of bicollateral and open vascular bundle, xylem consists mostly of vessels and tracheids, a strip of cambium present between xylem and phloem tissues,parenchymatous cells thin-walled, isodiametric to circular with intercellular spaces present in ground tissue,  laticifers also present in the phloem and parenchymatous zone.

ARKA Calotropis procera 3  

Chemical properties

 

  • These belong to the same chemical family as similar chemicals found in foxgloves (Digitalis purpurea).
  • The milky sap contains a complex mix of chemicals, some of which are steroidal heart poisons known as “cardiac aglycones”.
  • The steroidal component includes an hydroxyl group in the C3β position, a second attached to the C14 carbon, a C/D-cis ring junction and an α,β-unsaturated-γ-lactone in the C17 position.
  • These can be a C19-aldehyde in place of the more usual methyl group in this position as well as additional hydroxyl functions and sometimes epoxide structures.
  • The features described are those required for toxicity but in addition there can be other substitutions into the steroid nucleus.
  • In the plants, the steroidal component is commonly attached via a glycosidic link to a 2-desoxy or a 2,6-didesoxy sugar molecule.
  • CONSTITUENTS  –  Glycoside (Calotropin)

PROPERTIES AND ACTION

  • Rasa         :    Katu, Tikta
  • Guna         :    Laghu, Sara, Snigdha
  • Virya     :    Ushan
  • Vipaka     :    Katu

Function or Karma      :

  • Vatahar,
  • Dipana,
  • Krmighna,
  • Vra¸ahara,
  • Vishaghna,
  • vedanahar,
  • visahara

IMPORTANT FORMULATIONS  –

  • Arka Lavana
  • Kshar (kshar sutra)
  • kshar sutra (pilse)

THERAPEUTIC Medicinal USES

  • sotha,
  • Kandu,
  • Kustha,
  • Vrana,
  • Krmiroga,
  • Gulma,
  • Pliharoga,
  • Arsa,

DOSE Ayurveda drugs –   –

  • 250-750 mg of the drug in powder form