ATRIAL FLUTTER TACHYARRHYTHMIAS ARRHYTHMIAS marked by rapid (about 300 beats per minute) regular atrial beating
SINUS TACHYCARDIA —
- ·Heart rate exceeds 100 beats/min
- ·Gradual onset and offset
- ·Normal PQRST.
ATRIAL FLUTTER —
- Cardiovascular examination
- cardiac disorders
ATRIAL FLUTTER Definition cardiac dysrhythmia —
- marked by rapid (about 300 beats per minute) regular atrial beating,
- atrial flutter usually a regular ventricular response (whose rate may vary depending on the conduction of electrical impulses from the atria through the atrioventricular node).
- Atrial flutter usually converts to sinus rhythm with low-voltage direct current (DC) cardioversion or atrial pacing.
- atrial flutter On the electrocardiogram, the fluttering of the atria is best seen in leads II, III, and F as “sawtooth” deflections between the QRS complexes.
Symptoms atrial flutter —
- Patients may be asymptomatic, esp. when ventricular rates are less than 100 bpm.
- During tachycardic episodes, patients often report palpitations, dizziness, presyncope, or syncope.
Mediastinal flutter —
- Abnormal side-to-side motion of the mediastinum during respiration.
Diaphragmatic flutter —
- Rapid contractions of the diaphragm. They may occur intermittently or be present for an extended period. The cause is unknown.
Ventricular flutter —
- Ventricular contractions of the heart at 250 beats per minute, creating a high-amplitude, sawtooth pattern on the surface electrocardiogram. The rhythm is lethal unless immediate life support and resuscitation are provided.
- This tachyarrhythmia is slower than atrial fibrillation ilnd characterized by regular uniform saw-tooth-like f utter waves.
- Atrial rate 250 – 350 bpm.
- Ventricular rate is half the atrial rate, because of physiological block allowing cond 50% of atrial beats to the ventricle.
- P waves replaced by flutter waves – Saw-tooth like waves best seen in lead III And AVF.
Treatment Atrial flutter cardiac dysrhythmia —
- DC cardioversion Beta blocker Amiodarone
- Radiofrequency ablation (RFA).
- CCB (calcium channel blocker)
- Quinidine, flecainide, sotalol – to prevent recurrences