Details Descriptions About :: type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes causes symptoms treatment 

Description of Type 2 diabetes

DefinitionAccording to dictionary definition  Type 2 diabetes (also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes or adult onset diabetes) is a disease in which the blood glucose levels in the body stay consistently above normal. Insulin is the hormone which regulates blood glucose levels. Insulin is produced in the body by the pancreas. It regulates glucose levels in your blood by numerous mechanisms. In case of diabetes, the body may have a deficiency of insulin or resistance to action of insulin at the tissue level, or both.  Causes and Risk FactorsAccording to dictionary definition  Common causes and risk factors of Type 2 diabetes are:1. Genetic factors: You are at an increased risk of suffering from diabetes if either of your parents, grandparents, or siblings has it.2. Factors present at birth: Low birth weight is associated with type 2 diabetes later in life.3. Age: As you age, the chances of suffering from diabetes also increases, especially after 45 years.4. Fat distribution: Increased fat stores in abdominal area, increases your risk of Type 2 diabetes.5. Obesity: Increased weight is a major risk factor for diabetes.6. Lack of exercise: Inactivity leads to weight gain and increased fat storage in your body and thus increases the risk of diabetes.7. Smoking8. Diet: A low fiber, high fat, and sugary diet can lead to weight gain and eventually, diabetes.9. Stress  Signs and SymptomsAccording to dictionary definition  The common signs and symptoms of diabetes include:1. Increased frequency and quantity of urination2. Increased thirst3. Weight loss  4. Blurred vision  5. Fatigue6. Skin Infections  InvestigationsAccording to dictionary definition  Investigations include:1. Blood sugar fasting and post lunch: Blood glucose levels checked on empty stomach, i.e., overnight fasting for about 8 to 12 hours and then 2 hours after lunch. This forms the basic routine check for diabetes in any patient.2. HbA1C (glycosylated hemoglobin): Is the test that gives you an average estimate of blood glucose levels over the span of last 3 months.3. Glucose tolerance test: It helps in diagnosing diabetes in patients who have fasting glucose on higher side. This test measures body €™s ability to utilize the given amount of glucose when consumed orally.Other investigations that might be done are urine for protein, complete blood count, urea and electrolytes, lipid profile and liver function test.  TreatmentAccording to dictionary definition  There are various drugs available in the market to treat type 2 diabetes. They depend upon the cause of diabetes, severity of the disease, and presence or absence of any other diseases your doctor would prescribe you drugs like oral hypoglycemics or insulin.  Complications and When Should You See a DoctorAccording to dictionary definition  You must regularly visit your doctor, follow the treatment as prescribed and get all the investigations done whenever advised, for timely diagnosis of various complications of type 2 diabetes.1. Cardiovascular (heart) diseases2. Diabetic nephropathy: Uncontrolled diabetes disrupts the functioning of the kidneys. Severe damage to kidney can result in kidney failure or irreversible kidney damage.3. Diabetic neuropathy: Persistent high blood glucose levels injure the nerves, especially of the legs and arms. This is termed as diabetic neuropathy. This results in tingling, numbness, burning, or pain beginning from tip of the toes or fingers and slowly spreads upward. This is therefore called €˜socks and gloves €™ pattern. Uncontrolled diabetes can ultimately result in loss of different types of sensation, like temperature, pressure, pain, vibration sensation, etc. in the affected limbs.4. Diabetic retinopathy: Diabetes damages the blood vessels of retina which if not treated in time can result in blindness.5. Foot damage: Foot damage due to nerve damage and reduced blood supply to the lower limbs is called diabetic foot. It is the result of uncontrolled diabetes and can ultimately lead to amputation of affected toe or foot.6. Infections